Samuel O. Ayaya

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BACKGROUND Tinea capitis is a superficial fungal infection of the scalp and hair of the head which is common in children aged between two and eleven years. An endothrix infection is best treated using parenteral antifungal drugs while an ectothrix one may be treated by parenteral or topical antifungal drugs. The organism that commonly causes tinea capitis(More)
BACKGROUND The street children phenomenon is an increasing problem in most cosmopolitan cities of the world including Eldoret, which is a fast growing town. With the growth of the town so is the increasing number of street children. It is therefore important to have baseline data on their health problems. OBJECTIVE To determine the health problems of(More)
INTRODUCTION Disclosure of HIV status to children is essential for disease management but is not well characterized in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of disclosure and associated factors among a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Kenya. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, randomly sampling(More)
BACKGROUND As antiretroviral therapy (ART) allows the world's 2.3 million human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children to grow and thrive, these children need to be informed of their HIV status. Neither the prevalence of disclosure to children nor its impact has been evaluated in most resource-limited settings. METHODS We conducted a prospective(More)
BACKGROUND There are 2.3 million children living with HIV worldwide, almost 90 % of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa. Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment has dramatically increased in resource-limited settings in recent years and allows more HIV-infected children to survive into adolescence and adulthood. PURPOSE Our objective was to(More)
OBJECTIVES Determine outcome differences between orphaned and non-orphaned children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN Retrospective review of prospectively recorded electronic data. SETTING Nine HIV clinics in western Kenya. POPULATION 279 children on ART enrolled between August 2002 and February 2005. MAIN MEASURES Orphan status, CD4%,(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated 18-month incidence and determinants of death and loss to follow-up of children after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in a multiregional collaboration in lower-income countries. METHODS HIV-infected children (positive polymerase chain reaction <18 months or positive serology ≥18 months) from International Epidemiologic(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the nutritional status of orphaned and separated children and adolescents (OSCA) living in households in the community (HH), on the street, and those in institutional environments in western Kenya. METHODS The study enrolled OSCA from 300 randomly selected households (HH), 19 Charitable Children's Institutions (CCIs), and 100(More)
BACKGROUND This study sought to determine the level of adherence to Coartem© in the routine treatment of uncomplicated malaria among children under the age of five years in Nyando district, Kenya. METHODS Seventy-three children below the age of five years with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and prescribed Coartem(®)(More)
BACKGROUND Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions(More)