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INTRODUCTION Disclosure of HIV status to children is essential for disease management but is not well characterized in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of disclosure and associated factors among a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Kenya. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, randomly sampling(More)
BACKGROUND International collaborators face challenges in the design and implementation of ethical biomedical research. Evaluating community understanding of research and processes like informed consent may enable researchers to better protect research participants in a particular setting; however, there exist few studies examining community perspectives in(More)
Background. Tuberculosis (TB) is difficult to diagnose in children due to lack of a gold standard, especially in resource-limited settings. Scoring systems and diagnostic criteria are often used to assist in diagnosis; however their validity, especially in areas with high HIV prevalence, remains unclear. Methods. We searched online bibliographic databases,(More)
BACKGROUND As antiretroviral therapy (ART) allows the world's 2.3 million human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children to grow and thrive, these children need to be informed of their HIV status. Neither the prevalence of disclosure to children nor its impact has been evaluated in most resource-limited settings. METHODS We conducted a prospective(More)
BACKGROUND Malnutrition is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children aged five years and below. Risk factors for severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM) have been identified as ignorance, family size, mothers and fathers education, poverty, residence, chronic infections, and congenital defects or malformations. The role of such(More)
BACKGROUND This study sought to determine the level of adherence to Coartem© in the routine treatment of uncomplicated malaria among children under the age of five years in Nyando district, Kenya. METHODS Seventy-three children below the age of five years with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and prescribed Coartem(®)(More)
OBJECTIVES Determine outcome differences between orphaned and non-orphaned children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN Retrospective review of prospectively recorded electronic data. SETTING Nine HIV clinics in western Kenya. POPULATION 279 children on ART enrolled between August 2002 and February 2005. MAIN MEASURES Orphan status, CD4%,(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated 18-month incidence and determinants of death and loss to follow-up of children after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in a multiregional collaboration in lower-income countries. METHODS HIV-infected children (positive polymerase chain reaction <18 months or positive serology ≥18 months) from International Epidemiologic(More)
Researchers and aid organizations have reported that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are particularly vulnerable to abuse and neglect. This article is a review of qualitative studies that address experiences of maltreatment among orphaned children and youth living in extended families in SSA. It aims to inform policy and programming by providing a(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have reported CD4%- and age-stratified rates of World Health Organization Stage 3 (WHO3) events, World Health Organization Stage 4 (WHO4) events, tuberculosis (TB) and mortality in HIV-infected infants before initiation of antiretroviral therapy. METHODS HIV-infected children enrolled before 1 year of age in the International(More)