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This paper aims to test the contribution of ontogenetic scaling to sexual dimorphism of the facial skeleton in the African apes. Specifically, it addresses whether males and females of each species share a common postnatal ontogenetic shape trajectory for the facial skeleton. Where trajectories are found to differ, it is tested whether male and female(More)
This paper examines the hypothesis raised by recent studies that postnatal trajectories of shape change in the facial skeleton are parallel between, at least, chimpanzees, modern humans and also fossil hominins, specifically australopithecines and possibly Neanderthals. In contrast, other studies point to divergences in postnatal shape trajectories within(More)
The development of virtual methods for anatomical reconstruction and functional simulation of skeletal structures offers great promise in evolutionary and ontogenetic investigations of form-function relationships. Key developments reviewed here include geometric morphometric methods for the analysis and visualization of variations in form (size and shape),(More)
Finite element analysis (FEA) is a fundamental method to study stresses and strains in complex structures, with the accuracy of an FEA being reliant on a number of variables, not least the precision and complexity of the model's geometry. Techniques such as computed tomography (CT) allow general geometries to be derived relatively quickly; however,(More)
Bird beaks are textbook examples of ecological adaptation to diet, but their shapes are also controlled by genetic and developmental histories. To test the effects of these factors on the avian craniofacial skeleton, we conducted morphometric analyses on raptors, a polyphyletic group at the base of the landbird radiation. Despite common perception, we find(More)
The mouse has been the dominant model organism in studies on the development, genetics and evolution of the mammalian skull and associated soft-tissue for decades. There is the potential to take advantage of this well studied model and the range of mutant, knockin and knockout organisms with diverse craniofacial phenotypes to investigate the functional(More)
Whilst the periodontal ligament (PDL) acts as an attachment tissue between bone and tooth, hypotheses regarding the role of the PDL as a hydrodynamic damping mechanism during intraoral food processing have highlighted its potential importance in finite element (FE) analysis. Although experimental and constitutive models have correlated the mechanical(More)
Complex phenotypes could be interpreted as the result of functional integration between identifiable subunits. Common developmental or ecological factors may favour macroevolutionary morphological integration so that functional subunits also covary above the species level. We investigate shape variation and functional integration in two subunits of the(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Root length is strongly related to tooth stability but demonstrates considerable intraspecific variation. Previous studies have demonstrated an intraspecific relationship between root length and facial length in diverse mammalian taxa. These findings are indicative of plasticity in root length but with no clear developmental mechanism. This(More)