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BACKGROUND Well-recognized markers for static (one time) or dynamic (monitoring over time) dehydration assessment have not been rigorously tested for their usefulness in clinical, military, and sports medicine communities. OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the components of biological variation and the accuracy of potential markers in plasma, urine, saliva,(More)
Evidence suggests that core temperatures of approximately 40 degrees C can induce fatigue, although this may be confounded by coincident elevations in skin temperatures and maximal cardiovascular strain. In an observational field study to examine core temperature threshold for fatigue, we investigated whether running performance is impaired when rectal(More)
This study determined the effects of hypohydration on aerobic performance in compensable [evaporative cooling requirement (E(req)) < maximal evaporative cooling (E(max))] conditions of 10 degrees C [7 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT)], 20 degrees C (16 degrees C WBGT), 30 degrees C (22 degrees C WBGT), and 40 degrees C (27 degrees C WBGT) ambient(More)
The purpose of this study was to quantify the variability and stability of 1st morning body mass (BM) fluctuations during daily exercise in the heat while following traditional fluid intake guidance. Data from 65 men were examined retrospectively. BM fluctuations were monitored over 4 to 15 consecutive days. Group daily variation in BM was 0.51+/-0.20 kg.(More)
This paper reviews the roles of hot skin (>35°C) and body water deficits (>2% body mass; hypohydration) in impairing submaximal aerobic performance. Hot skin is associated with high skin blood flow requirements and hypohydration is associated with reduced cardiac filling, both of which act to reduce aerobic reserve. In euhydrated subjects, hot skin alone(More)
The vasomotor response to cold may compromise the capacity for microclimate cooling (MCC) to reduce thermoregulatory strain. This study examined the hypothesis that intermittent, regional MCC (IRC) would abate this response and improve heat loss when compared with constant MCC (CC) during exercise heat stress. In addition, the relative effectiveness of four(More)
Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of human cardiovascular and temperature regulation, body fluid balance, and thus aerobic performance. This minireview proposes that the cardiovascular adjustments accompanying high skin temperatures (T(sk)), alone or in combination with high core body temperatures (T(c)), provide a primary explanation for(More)
UNLABELLED Exercise alone or in combination with environmental heat stress can elevate blood S-100beta protein concentrations. However, the explanatory power of exercise with marked environmental heat stress on the appearance of S-100beta is questionable. It is possible that the process of heat acclimation might afford additional insight. PURPOSE(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 2-hour exercise bout on sweat iron and zinc concentrations and losses in males and females. Nine male and 9 female recreational cyclists exercised at approximately 50% VO(2peak) in a temperate environment (Ta = 23 degrees C, RH = 51%). Sweat samples were collected for 15 min during each of four(More)
This study compared the effects of hypohydration (HYP) on endurance exercise performance in temperate and cold air environments. On four occasions, six men and two women (age = 24 +/- 6 yr, height = 170 +/- 6 cm, weight = 72.9 +/- 11.1 kg, peak O2 consumption = 48 +/- 9 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) were exposed to 3 h of passive heat stress (45 degrees C) in the(More)