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Residue cover is very important for controlling soil erosion by water and wind. Thus, the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) includes a model for the decomposition of crop residue. It simulates the fall rate of standing residue and the decomposition of standing and flat residue as a function of temperature and moisture. It also calculates residue cover(More)
APSA is posting this article for public view on its website. APSA journals are fully accessible to APSA members and institutional subscribers. To view the table of contents or abstracts from this or any of APSA's journals, please go to the website of our publisher Cambridge University Press (http://journals.cambridge.org). This article may only be used for(More)
In the standard Downsian model, voters are assumed to choose parties based on the extent of ideological proximity between the voter's own position and that of the party. Yet it is also well known that there are rationalization and projection effects such that voters tend to misestimate the policy platforms of candidates or parties to which they are(More)
The standard approach to two-party political competition in a multi-dimensional issue space models voters as voting for the alternative that is located closest to their own most preferred location. Another approach to understanding voter choice is based on preferred direction of change with respect to some specified neutral point (e.g., an origin or status(More)
In two-party competition, the more ideologically concentrated party may be advantaged in that its party median may be closer to the overall median voter than is that of the more dispersed party. Because of party activists and the intermediating effects of party primaries which tend to lead to the selection of candidates near the party median, voters often(More)
In this paper we introduce harmonic analysis (Fourier series) as a tool for characterizing the existence of Nash equilibria in two-dimensional spatial majority rule voting games with large electorates. We apply our methods both to traditional proximity models and to directional models. In the latter voters exhibit preferences over directions rather than(More)
In contrast to the traditional modeling of voter choice based on proximity, under directional models, selection of candidates is based on the direction and/or intensity of change from a status quo or neutral point. Voter choice can also be modeled as representing both approaches, e.g., as a directional model with proximity restraint, or alternatively, in(More)
The two hallmarks of a critical election and, hence, of a critical realignment are the magnitude of the observed change and the durability of that change. In addition to offering a new approach to measuring durable change in national party dominance, and providing a non-parametric criterion to identify unusual changes in seat/vote shares, we provide fresh(More)
With rare exceptions, spatial models of candidate strategies under the plurality voting system have analyzed single-stage plurality elections, i.e. elections in which the winning candidate is the one who receives the most votes in a single round of voting. 1 Among advanced industrial societies, France is a notable example of a country that features a(More)