Samuel M Scheiner

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Phenotypic plasticity is an environmentally based change in the phenotype. Understanding the evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity has been hampered by dissenting opinions on the merits of different methods of description, on the underlying genetic mechanisms, and on the way that plasticity is affected by natural selection in a heterogeneous(More)
In a heterogeneous world, the optimal strategy for an individual is to continually change its phenotype to match the optimal type. However, in the real world, organisms do not behave in this fashion. One potential reason why is that phenotypic plasticity is costly. We measured production and maintenance costs of plasticity in the freshwater crustacean(More)
Science progresses faster when researchers operate within an explicit framework of concepts and theories, but currently biology has no explicit, overarching conceptual framework and few general theories. The single general theory currently recognized is that of evolution, which was put forth by Charles Darwin 150 years ago. Recently, Scheiner and Willig(More)
To understand natural selection we need to integrate its measure across environments. We present a method for measuring phenotypic selection that combines the potential for both environmental variation and phenotypic plasticity. The method uses path analysis and a measure of selection that is analogous to selection on breeding values. For individuals(More)
Although the maintenance of diversity of living systems is critical for ecosystem functioning, the accelerating pace of global change is threatening its preservation. Standardized methods for biodiversity assessment and monitoring are needed. Species diversity is one of the most widely adopted metrics for assessing patterns and processes of biodiversity, at(More)
We examined the genetic architecture of plasticity of thorax and wing length in response to temperature in Drosophila melanogaster. Reaction norms as a function of growth temperature were analyzed in 20 isofemale lines in a natural population collected from Grande Ferrade near Bordeaux (southern France) in two different years. We found evidence for a(More)
The process of evolution by natural selection can be divided into two components, phenotypic selection operating within a single generation and a genetic response operating across generations (Fisher, 1930). Over the past 15 years we have greatly re®ned our ability to analyse phenotypic selection. Lande & Arnold (1983) presented a fundamental methodological(More)
Previous theories and studies have postulated negative correlations between allozyme heterozygosity and developmental noise and between heterozygosity and phenotypic plasticity. We examined these relationships for morphological and life-history traits of Daphnia magna in four independent experiments using two different Moscow populations and one German(More)
If phenotypic plasticity is a trait subject to selection and evolution, we need to quantify reaction norms and to identify the potential target(s) of selection. Previously we proposed the use of polynomial coefficients as reaction norm descriptors. However, the interpretation of these coefficients is not straightforward if the reaction norm is not linear.(More)
To understand empirical patterns of phenotypic plasticity, we need to explore the complexities of environmental heterogeneity and how it interacts with cue reliability. I consider both temporal and spatial variation separately and in combination, the timing of temporal variation relative to development, the timing of movement relative to selection, and two(More)