Samuel H. Wilson

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Although oxidative damage has long been associated with ageing and neurological disease, mechanistic connections of oxidation to these phenotypes have remained elusive. Here we show that the age-dependent somatic mutation associated with Huntington's disease occurs in the process of removing oxidized base lesions, and is remarkably dependent on a single(More)
Synthesis of DNA by DNA polymerase-beta is distributive on single-stranded DNA templates, but short DNA gaps with a 5' PO4 in the gap are filled processively to completion. In vitro studies have suggested a role of beta-polymerase in different types of DNA repair. However, the significance of these studies to the in vivo role of beta-polymerase has remained(More)
Two ternary complexes of rat DNA polymerase beta (pol beta), a DNA template-primer, and dideoxycytidine triphosphate (ddCTP) have been determined at 2.9 A and 3.6 A resolution, respectively. ddCTP is the triphosphate of dideoxycytidine (ddC), a nucleoside analog that targets the reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is at present(More)
Small DNA lesions such as oxidized or alkylated bases are repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. BER includes removal of the damaged base by a lesion-specific DNA glycosylase, strand scission by apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, DNA resynthesis and ligation. BER may be further subdivided into DNA beta-polymerase (beta-pol)-dependent(More)
DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) fills single nucleotide (nt) gaps in DNA produced by the base excision repair pathway of mammalian cells. Crystal structures have been determined representing intermediates in the 1 nt gap-filling reaction of pol beta: the binary complex with a gapped DNA substrate (2.4 A resolution), the ternary complex including ddCTP (2.2(More)
The mammalian family X DNA polymerases (DNA polymerases beta, lambda, mu, and TdT) contribute to base excision repair and double-strand break repair by virtue of their ability to fill short gaps in DNA. Structural information now exists for all four of these enzymes, making this the first mammalian polymerase family whose structural portrait is complete.(More)
In mammalian cells, single-base lesions, such as uracil and abasic sites, appear to be repaired by at least two base excision repair (BER) subpathways: "single-nucleotide BER" requiring DNA synthesis of just one nucleotide and "long patch BER" requiring multi-nucleotide DNA synthesis. In single-nucleotide BER, DNA polymerase beta (beta-pol) accounts for(More)
Oxidative DNA damage causes blocks and errors in transcription and replication, leading to cell death and genomic instability. Although repair mechanisms of the damage have been extensively analyzed in vitro, the actual in vivo repair processes remain largely unknown. Here, by irradiation with an UVA laser through a microscope lens, we have conditionally(More)
Base excision repair (BER) is one of the cellular defense mechanisms repairing damage to nucleoside 5'-monophosphate residues in genomic DNA. This repair pathway is initiated by spontaneous or enzymatic N-glycosidic bond cleavage creating an abasic or apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) site in double-stranded DNA. Class II AP endonuclease, deoxyribonucleotide(More)
The paradigm for repair of oxidized base lesions in genomes via the base excision repair (BER) pathway is based on studies in Escherichia coli, in which AP endonuclease (APE) removes all 3' blocking groups (including 3' phosphate) generated by DNA glycosylase/AP lyases after base excision. The recently discovered mammalian DNA glycosylase/AP lyases, NEIL1(More)