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BACKGROUND Increased uptake of HIV testing by men in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for the success of combination prevention. Self-testing is an emerging approach with high acceptability, but little evidence exists on the best strategies for test distribution. We assessed an approach of providing multiple self-tests to women at high risk of HIV(More)
BACKGROUND Effective demand creation strategies are needed to increase uptake of medical male circumcision and reduce new HIV infections in eastern and southern Africa. Building on insights from behavioral economics, we assessed whether providing compensation for opportunity costs of time or lottery-based rewards can increase male circumcision uptake in(More)
BACKGROUND Achieving higher rates of partner HIV testing and couples testing among pregnant and postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for the success of combination HIV prevention, including the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We aimed to determine whether providing multiple HIV self-tests to pregnant and postpartum women for(More)
IMPORTANCE Novel strategies are needed to increase the uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in sub-Saharan Africa and enhance the effectiveness of male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy. OBJECTIVE To determine whether small economic incentives could increase circumcision prevalence by addressing reported economic barriers to VMMC(More)
Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal(More)
BACKGROUND Since 2000, international funding for HIV has supported scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. However, such funding has stagnated for years, threatening the sustainability and reach of ART programs amid efforts to achieve universal treatment. Improving health system efficiencies, particularly at the facility level, is an(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the associations between perceived quality of care and patient satisfaction among HIV and non-HIV patients in Zambia. SETTING Patient exit survey conducted at 104 primary, secondary and tertiary health clinics across 16 Zambian districts. PARTICIPANTS 2789 exiting patients. PRIMARY INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Five dimensions of(More)
OBJECTIVE In this study we use facility-level data from nationally representative surveys conducted in Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda to understand pharmaceutical availability within the three countries. METHODS In 2012, we conducted a survey to capture information on pharmaceuticals and other facility indicators from over 200 facilities in each country. We(More)
BACKGROUND Patients enrolled in Medicaid have limited access to orthodontic services in the United States. No studies are available, to the authors' knowledge, regarding the clinical and psychosocial burdens of malocclusion on these patients from an economic perspective. METHODS The authors conducted a systematic review of the relevant economic(More)
INTRODUCTION Antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines were significantly changed by the World Health Organization in 2010. It is largely unknown to what extent these guidelines were adopted into clinical practice. METHODS This was a retrospective observational analysis of first-line ART regimens in a sample of health facilities providing ART in Kenya,(More)