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BACKGROUND Egg laying in Caenorhabditis elegans has been well studied at the genetic and behavioral levels. However, the neural basis of egg-laying behavior is still not well understood; in particular, the roles of specific neurons and the functional nature of the synaptic connections in the egg-laying circuit remain uncharacterized. RESULTS We have used(More)
BACKGROUND Caenorhabditis elegans actively crawls down thermal gradients until it reaches the temperature of its prior cultivation, exhibiting what is called cryophilic movement. Implicit in the worm's performance of cryophilic movement is the ability to detect thermal gradients, and implicit in regulating the performance of cryophilic movement is the(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are frequently caused by tobacco smoking. However, these diseases present opposite phenotypes involving redox signaling at the cellular level. While COPD is characterized by excessive airway epithelial cell death and lung injury, lung cancer is caused by uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation.(More)
Staphylococcus aureus USA300 strains cause a highly inflammatory necrotizing pneumonia. The virulence of this strain has been attributed to its expression of multiple toxins that have diverse targets including ADAM10, NLRP3 and CD11b. We demonstrate that induction of necroptosis through RIP1/RIP3/MLKL signaling is a major consequence of S. aureus toxin(More)
Regulated calcium signals play conserved instructive roles in neuronal repair, but how localized calcium stores are differentially mobilized, or might be directly manipulated, to stimulate regeneration within native contexts is poorly understood. We find here that localized calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum via ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels(More)
Sphingolipids play key roles in cancer, yet our current understanding of sphingolipid function in lung cancer is limited to a few key players. The best characterized of these are sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramide which are described for their opposing roles in cell fate. However, because sphingolipids as a whole are readily interconverted by a complex(More)
We previously presented that the neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) is the only SMase activated in human airway epithelial (HAE) cells following exposure to oxidative stress (ox-stress), yielding ceramide accumulation and thereby inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, we reported that nSMase2 is a phospho-protein in which the level of phosphorylation controls(More)
The development of biodegradable gene delivery systems with high transfection efficiencies is paramount to the clinical translation of nonviral gene carriers. Therefore, to produce a biocompatible, reducible, effective and non-toxic gene delivery system, we have designed and synthesized novel reducible linear L-lysine modified copolymers (LLCs) as an(More)
Purified long-term multilineage repopulating marrow stem cells have been considered to be homogenous, but functionally these cells are heterogeneous. Many investigators urge clonal studies to define stem cells but, if stem cells are truly heterogeneous, clonal studies can only define heterogeneity. We have determined the colony growth and differentiation of(More)