Samuel G Charlton

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The effect of three types of cell phones (hand held, hands free with an external speaker and personal hands free) on total subjective workload (including its constituent components; mental demand, physical demand, temporal demand, performance, effort and frustration) and intelligibility was measured using the NASA-task load index (TLX) and the modified(More)
Horizontal curves have been recognized as a significant safety issue for many years, a more important factor than road width or sight distance. The research literature suggests that driver errors associated with horizontal curves result from three inter-related problems: failures of driver attention, misperceptions of speed and curvature, and poor lane(More)
The finding that drivers may react to safety interventions in a way that is contrary to what was intended is the phenomenon of behavioural adaptation. This phenomenon has been demonstrated across various safety interventions and has serious implications for road safety programs the world over. The present research used a driving simulator to assess(More)
This study assessed the ability of drivers to detect the deceleration of a preceding vehicle in a simulated vehicle-following task. The size of the preceding vehicles (car, van, or truck) and following speeds (50, 70, or 100 km/h) were systematically varied. Participants selected a preferred following distance by engaging their vehicle's cruise control and(More)
Past studies have found that lateral orientation (eye or head turn) may influence hemispheric asymmetry on the dichotic listening task. The present work studied the effects of forced head and eye turn on a consonant-vowel dichotic test. Spontaneous conjugate lateral eye movements (CLEM) in response to questions were also measured. The subjects were 29 male(More)
This paper describes an experiment comparing the relative effectiveness of various types of warnings on drivers' speed selection at curves. The experiment compared three types of curve warnings across three different curve types in a driving simulator. All of the warnings worked reasonably well for severe curves (45 km/h), regardless of demands from a(More)
OBJECTIVE Alcohol has an adverse effect on driving performance; however, the effects of moderate doses on different aspects of the driving task are inconsistent and differ across the intoxication curve. This research aimed to investigate driving and cognitive performance asymmetries (acute tolerance and acute protracted error) accompanying the onset and(More)
Inattention is a road safety problem, but few studies have focused specifically on mind wandering during everyday driving. This paper explores differences in self-reported mind wandering according to driver demographic characteristics (including age and gender), cognitive traits (such as tendency toward cognitive failure or mindful attention), states (such(More)
Recent research on the perceived speed of large moving objects, compared to smaller moving objects, has revealed the presence of a size-speed illusion. This illusion, where a large object seems to be moving more slowly than a small object travelling at the same speed may account for collisions between motor cars and trains at level crossings, which is a(More)
Railway level crossing collisions have recently been linked to a size-speed illusion where larger objects such as trains appear to move slower than smaller objects such as cars. An explanation for this illusion has centred on observer eye movements - particularly in relation to the larger, longer train. A previous study (Clark et al., 2016) found(More)