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The low carbon-13/carbon-12 ratio of lipids is shown to result from isotopic fractionation during the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A. In vitro analysis of the kinetic isotope effects of this reaction indicates that there will be a large, temperature-dependent difference in the carbon-13/carbon-12 ratio between the methyl and carbonyl carbon(More)
Ion microprobe studies of hydrous amphibole, biotite, and apatite in shergottite-nakhlite-chassignite (SNC) meteorites, probable igneous rocks from Mars, indicate high deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratios relative to terrestrial values. The amphiboles contain roughly one-tentn as much water as expected, suggesting that SNC magmas were less hydrous than(More)
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Much effort has been directed to analyses of organic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites because of their implications for organic chemical evolution and the origin of life. We have determined the isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite. The unusually high D/H and(More)
We describe a novel mechanism by which network oscillations can arise from reciprocal inhibitory connections between two entirely passive neurons. The model was inspired by the activation of the gastric mill rhythm in the crab stomatogastric ganglion by the modulatory commissural ganglion neuron 1 (MCN1), but it is studied here in general terms. One model(More)
Tree rings from three dendrochronologically dated bristlecone pines were analyzed for stable hydrogen isotopic composition. These trees give a continuous time series from 8000 years ago to the present that indicates the presence of a postglacial climate optimum 6800 years ago and a continuous cooling since then. The qualitative agreement between this record(More)
Previous isotopic analyses of the total amino acids of the Murchison meteorite showed these compounds to be substantially enriched in 2H, 13C, and 15N relative to terrestrial organic matter. These analyses have been repeated (2H, 13C) with inclusion of an ultrafiltration step to exclude the possibility that a fine particulate contaminant carried the(More)
The degree of impact-induced devolatilization of nonporous serpentine, porous serpentine, and deuterium-enriched serpentine was investigated using two independent experimental methods, the gas recovery method and the solid recovery method, yielding consistent results. The gas recovery method enables determination of the chemical and hydrogen isotopic(More)
Selective enrichment culture techniques were employed to obtain mixed cultures of methanogenic rods and sarcina from surface flooding waters and deep subsurface ( approximately 1650 m) oil-bearing sedimentary rocks and formation waters sampled from an old oil field in the U.S.S.R. previously reported to display active biological methanogenesis. The(More)