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Shadow often interferes with accurate image analysis. To mitigate shadow effects in near-earth imagery (2 m above ground level), we created high dynamic range (HDR) nadir images and used them to measure grassland ground cover. HDR composites were created by merging three differentially exposed images spanning a wide exposure range and resulted in lightened(More)
Identifying environments where invasive plants are most invasive is key to understanding causes of invasion and developing effective management strategies. In mixed-grass prairie, invasive plants are often successful in relatively wet, nitrogen-rich areas, and areas protected from grazing. Dalmatian toadflax, a common invader of mixed-grass prairie, can(More)
A warming earth has lost substantial mountain-stored frozen fresh water, thus generating a pressing need for greater liquid–water storage within upper-elevation riparian systems. Liquid–water storage can be enhanced by avoiding microtopographic channels that facilitate land drainage and rapid runoff. A number of authors have attributed certain forms of(More)
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