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Brain lesions of cerebral malaria (CM) are characterized by a sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (PRBC) and platelets within brain microvessels, as well as by blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility that PRBC and platelets induce functional alterations in brain endothelium. In(More)
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in African children, and factors that determine the development of uncomplicated (UM) versus cerebral malaria (CM) are not fully understood. We studied the ex vivo responsiveness of microvascular endothelial cells to pro-inflammatory stimulation and compared the findings between CM(More)
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection and represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The nature of the pathogenetic processes leading to the cerebral complications remains poorly understood. It has recently emerged that in addition to their conventional role in the regulation of(More)
Platelets may play a role in the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria (CM), and they have been shown to induce clumping of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (PRBCs) in vitro. Both thrombocytopenia and platelet-induced PRBC clumping are associated with severe malaria and, especially, with CM. In the present study, we investigated the(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria is still a major public health problem, partly because the pathogenesis of its major complication, cerebral malaria (CM), remains incompletely understood. However tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is thought to play a key role in the development of this neurological syndrome, as well as lymphotoxin alpha (LT). METHODS AND FINDINGS Using an in(More)
Endothelial dysregulation is central to the pathogenesis of acute Plasmodium falciparum infection. It has been assumed that this dysregulation resolves rapidly after treatment, but this return to normality has been neither demonstrated nor quantified. We therefore measured a panel of plasma endothelial markers acutely and in convalescence in Malawian(More)
Platelet adhesion to the brain microvasculature has been associated with cerebral malaria (CM) in humans, suggesting that platelets play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. In vitro co-cultures have shown that platelets can act as a bridge between Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (pRBC) and human brain microvascular endothelial cells(More)
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major contributor to malaria deaths, but its pathophysiology is not well understood. While sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes is thought to be critical, the roles of inflammation and coagulation are controversial. In a large series of Malawian children hospitalized with CM, HIV coinfection was more prevalent than in(More)
More than a century after the discovery of Plasmodium spp. parasites, the pathogenesis of severe malaria is still not well understood. The majority of malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, which differ in virulence, red blood cell tropism, cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes, and dormant liver hypnozoite stages. Cerebral(More)
Repellents such as coils, vaporizers, mats and creams can be used to reduce the risk of malaria and other infectious diseases. Although evidence for their effectiveness is limited, they are advertised as providing an additional approach to mosquito control in combination with other strategies, e.g. insecticide-treated nets. We examined the use of repellents(More)