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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Indicators to measure the quality of healthcare are increasingly used by healthcare professionals and policy makers. In the context of increasing antimicrobial resistance, this study aimed to develop valid drug-specific quality indicators for outpatient antibiotic use in Europe, derived from European Surveillance of Antimicrobial(More)
OBJECTIVE Resistance to antibiotics is the major cause of treatment failure of Helicobacter pylori infection. A study was conducted to assess prospectively the antibacterial resistance rates of H pylori in Europe and to study the link between outpatient antibiotic use and resistance levels in different countries. DESIGN Primary antibiotic resistance rates(More)
The European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) project collects data on antibacterial use in Europe, applying the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification system and defined daily dose methodology, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Comparable data for the United States have been collected from IMS Health. The IMS Health(More)
This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general(More)
are acknowledged for providing valuable comments and scientific advice during the production of the report. All ESAC-Net participants and National Epidemiological Contact Points are acknowledged for providing data and valuable comments for this report. Gaetan Guyodo, Dana Ursut and Catalin Albu are acknowledged for data management and providing technical(More)
BACKGROUND Lower-respiratory-tract infection is one of the most common acute illnesses managed in primary care. Few placebo-controlled studies of antibiotics have been done, and overall effectiveness (particularly in subgroups such as older people) is debated. We aimed to compare the benefits and harms of amoxicillin for acute lower-respiratory-tract(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe total outpatient systemic antibiotic use in Europe from 1997 to 2009 and to analyse statistically trends of total use and composition of use over time. METHODS For the period 1997-2009, data on outpatient use of systemic antibiotics aggregated at the level of the active substance were collected and expressed in defined daily doses(More)
BACKGROUND Resistance to antibiotics is a major public-health problem, and studies that link antibiotic use and resistance have shown an association but not a causal effect. We used the macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin to investigate the direct effect of antibiotic exposure on resistance in the oral streptococcal flora of healthy volunteers. (More)
OBJECTIVES To assess quality of outpatient antibiotic use in Europe in 2009 based on the 12 European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) drug-specific quality indicators and to evaluate changes in quality between 2004 and 2009. METHODS Quality of outpatient antibiotic use in 2009 was compared between 32 countries by calculating the indicator(More)
BACKGROUND High-volume prescribing of antibiotics in primary care is a major driver of antibiotic resistance. Education of physicians and patients can lower prescribing levels, but it frequently relies on highly trained staff. We assessed whether internet-based training methods could alter prescribing practices in multiple health-care systems. METHODS(More)