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Background In 2007, ESAC (http://www.esac.ua.ac.be) published a set of 12 valid drug-specific quality indicators for outpatient antibiotic use in Europe. In this study, the authors aimed to develop evidence-based disease-specific quality indicators for outpatient antibiotic prescribing in Europe. Methods Two meetings were convened to produce a list of(More)
are acknowledged for providing valuable comments and scientific advice during the production of the report. All ESAC-Net participants and National Epidemiological Contact Points are acknowledged for providing data and valuable comments for this report. Gaetan Guyodo, Dana Ursut and Catalin Albu are acknowledged for data management and providing technical(More)
This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general(More)
BACKGROUND Resistance to antibiotics is a major public-health problem, and studies that link antibiotic use and resistance have shown an association but not a causal effect. We used the macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin to investigate the direct effect of antibiotic exposure on resistance in the oral streptococcal flora of healthy volunteers. (More)
OBJECTIVE To describe variation in antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in contrasting European settings and the impact on recovery. DESIGN Cross sectional observational study with clinicians from 14 primary care research networks in 13 European countries who recorded symptoms on presentation and management. Patients followed up for 28 days with patient(More)
BACKGROUND High-volume prescribing of antibiotics in primary care is a major driver of antibiotic resistance. Education of physicians and patients can lower prescribing levels, but it frequently relies on highly trained staff. We assessed whether internet-based training methods could alter prescribing practices in multiple health-care systems. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVES To quantify the diagnostic accuracy of selected inflammatory markers in addition to symptoms and signs for predicting pneumonia and to derive a diagnostic tool. DESIGN Diagnostic study performed between 2007 and 2010. Participants had their history taken, underwent physical examination and measurement of C reactive protein (CRP) and(More)
BACKGROUND Antibiotics are being overprescribed in ambulant care, especially for respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Gaining insight into the actual reasons for prescribing remains important for the design of effective strategies to optimise antibiotic prescribing. We aimed to determine items of importance for the antibiotic prescribing decision and to(More)
OBJECTIVES There is a wide variation between European countries in antibiotic prescribing for patients in primary care with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) that is not explained by case mix and clinical factors alone. Variation in antibiotic prescribing that is not warranted by differences in illness and clinical presentation may increase selection(More)
BACKGROUND Interventions to promote prudent antibiotic prescribing by general practitioners (GPs) have often only been developed for use in one country. We aimed to develop an intervention which would be appropriate to implement in multiple European countries in order to offer greater benefit to practice whilst using fewer resources. The INTRO (INternet(More)