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BACKGROUND Well-recognized markers for static (one time) or dynamic (monitoring over time) dehydration assessment have not been rigorously tested for their usefulness in clinical, military, and sports medicine communities. OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the components of biological variation and the accuracy of potential markers in plasma, urine, saliva,(More)
This study determined the effects of hypohydration on aerobic performance in compensable [evaporative cooling requirement (E(req)) < maximal evaporative cooling (E(max))] conditions of 10 degrees C [7 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT)], 20 degrees C (16 degrees C WBGT), 30 degrees C (22 degrees C WBGT), and 40 degrees C (27 degrees C WBGT) ambient(More)
The induction of cellular acquired thermal tolerance (ATT) during heat acclimation (HA) in humans is not well described. This study determined whether exercise-HA modifies the human heat shock protein (HSP)72 and HSP90 responses and whether changes are correlated with physiological adaptations to HA. Using a 10-day HA protocol comprising daily exercise(More)
Healthy humans regulate daily water balance remarkably well across their lifespan despite changes in biological development and exposure to stressors on hydration status. Acute or chronic body water deficits result when intakes are reduced or losses increase, but day-to-day hydration is generally well maintained so long as food and fluid are readily(More)
This paper reviews the roles of hot skin (>35°C) and body water deficits (>2% body mass; hypohydration) in impairing submaximal aerobic performance. Hot skin is associated with high skin blood flow requirements and hypohydration is associated with reduced cardiac filling, both of which act to reduce aerobic reserve. In euhydrated subjects, hot skin alone(More)
The vasomotor response to cold may compromise the capacity for microclimate cooling (MCC) to reduce thermoregulatory strain. This study examined the hypothesis that intermittent, regional MCC (IRC) would abate this response and improve heat loss when compared with constant MCC (CC) during exercise heat stress. In addition, the relative effectiveness of four(More)
UNLABELLED Exercise alone or in combination with environmental heat stress can elevate blood S-100beta protein concentrations. However, the explanatory power of exercise with marked environmental heat stress on the appearance of S-100beta is questionable. It is possible that the process of heat acclimation might afford additional insight. PURPOSE(More)
Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of human cardiovascular and temperature regulation, body fluid balance, and thus aerobic performance. This minireview proposes that the cardiovascular adjustments accompanying high skin temperatures (T(sk)), alone or in combination with high core body temperatures (T(c)), provide a primary explanation for(More)
Dehydration alters cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, central nervous system, and metabolic functions. One or more of these alterations will degrade endurance exercise performance when dehydration exceeds 2% of body weight. These performance decrements are accentuated by heat stress. To minimize the adverse consequences of body water deficits on endurance(More)
BACKGROUND The development of symptomatic hyponatraemia consequent on participation in marathon and ultraendurance races has led to questions about its aetiology and prevention. OBJECTIVES To evaluate: (a) the assertion that sweat sodium losses cannot contribute to the development of hyponatraemia during endurance exercise; (b) the adequacy of fluid(More)