Samuel C. Kayman

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A major problem hampering the development of an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the resistance of many primary viral isolates to antibody-mediated neutralization. To identify factors responsible for this resistance, determinants of the large differences in neutralization sensitivities of HIV-1 pseudotyped with Env(More)
The neutralizing activities of anti-V3 antibodies for HIV-1 isolates is affected both by sequence variation within V3 and by epitope masking by the V1/V2 domain. To analyze the relative contribution of V3 sequence variation, chimeric Env genes that contained consensus V3 sequences from seven HIV-1 subtypes in the neutralization-sensitive SF162 Env backbone(More)
During growth, Dictyostelium cells continuously secrete a factor, PSF, that accumulates in proportion to cell density. At sufficient concentration, it triggers the production of discoidin I and certain lysosomal enzymes. Our earlier studies demonstrated these effects of PSF on protein and enzyme levels [Clarke et al., Differentiation 34:79-87, 1987; Clarke(More)
Although it is known that some human immune sera possess potent neutralizing activities for primary viruses, the identity of the target epitopes mediating this neutralization is unknown, and currently available immunogens have not been able to induce such activities. Using recombinant fusion glycoproteins expressing native V1/V2 domains of gp120 we have(More)
Sera from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected North American patients recognized a fusion protein expressing a V3 loop from a clade B primary isolate virus (JR-CSF) but not from a clade A primary isolate virus (92UG037.8), while most sera from Cameroonian patients recognized both fusion proteins. Competition studies of consensus V3 peptides(More)
Antibodies (Abs) against the V3 loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein were initially considered to mediate only type-specific neutralization of T-cell-line-adapted viruses. However, recent data show that cross-neutralizing V3 Abs also exist, and primary isolates can be efficiently neutralized with anti-V3 monoclonal Abs(More)
The synthesis of the lectin, discoidin I, by vegetative cells of Dictyostelium discoideum (strain NC4) was monitored using immunoblot analysis and indirect immunofluorescence. Suspension cultures were used, so that the D. discoideum cell density and the concentration of bacteria could be controlled. Discoidin-I production was found to be a function of the(More)
We have previously shown that growing cells of Dictyostelium discoideum (strains NC4 and AX3) produce a soluble substance that accumulates in the medium in proportion to cell density; this substance regulates the production of certain proteins previously thought to be induced by starvation [Clarke et al., 1987]. We suggest the name PSF (prestarvation(More)
A calcium-dependent regulatory protein (calmodulin) was purified from vegetative amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum. The properties of Dictyostelium calmodulin are similar but not identical to those of bovine brain calmodulin. Calmodulin activity was not detected in extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli.
The epitopes of the V3 domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 glycoprotein have complex structures consisting of linear and conformational antigenic determinants. Anti-V3 antibodies (Abs) recognize both types of elements, but Abs which preferentially react to the conformational aspect of the epitopes may have more potent(More)