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Forest systems cover more than 4.1 x 10(9) hectares of the Earth's land area. Globally, forest vegetation and soils contain about 1146 petagrams of carbon, with approximately 37 percent of this carbon in low-latitude forests, 14 percent in mid-latitudes, and 49 percent at high latitudes. Over two-thirds of the carbon in forest ecosystems is contained in(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock often exhibit significant cardiovascular dysfunction. We sought to determine whether severity of diastolic dysfunction assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) predicts 28-day mortality. METHODS In this prospective, observational study conducted in two intensive care units at a(More)
BACKGROUND Novel 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection has significantly affected ICUs. We sought to characterize our region's clinical findings and demographic associations with ICU admission due to novel A(H1N1). METHODS We conducted an observational study from May 19, 2009, to June 30, 2009, of descriptive clinical course, inpatient mortality, financial(More)
INTRODUCTION Prolonged ventilation and failed extubation are associated with increased harm and cost. The added value of heart and respiratory rate variability (HRV and RRV) during spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) to predict extubation failure remains unknown. METHODS We enrolled 721 patients in a multicenter (12 sites), prospective, observational(More)
INTRODUCTION In septic shock, assessment of cardiac function often relies on invasive central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2). Ventricular strain is a non-invasive method of assessing ventricular wall deformation and may be a sensitive marker of heart function. We hypothesized that it may have a relationship with ScvO2 and lactate. METHODS We(More)
Influenza infection can affect cardiac function. The recent pandemic of H1N1 influenza A provided an opportunity to study echocardiographic findings in critically ill infected patients. We hypothesised that critically ill patients with H1N1 infection would have a higher incidence of right and left heart failure than is seen in unselected populations of(More)
Whether ventilator-associated pneumonia is a manifestation of severity of illness or an independent cause of mortality in ventilator-dependent patients is not known. In this complex area, which cannot be readily subjected to randomized controlled trials, studies should focus on the underlying questions of relevance, how to improve care of ventilated(More)
BACKGROUND Sepsis is an often-fatal syndrome resulting from severe infection. Rapid identification and treatment are critical for septic patients. We therefore developed a probabilistic model to identify septic patients in the emergency department (ED). We aimed to produce a model that identifies 80 % of sepsis patients, with no more than 15 false positive(More)
Eleven ambulatory EEG (A/EEG) cassette tapes were sent to 5 reviewers from different EEG laboratories in the U.K. Each tape included one attack recorded from a different patient. Attacks were chosen to include various possible EEG changes that can occur during attacks on A/EEG. Reviewers were asked to give details of EEG changes seen during attacks and to(More)
BACKGROUND Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is common in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, but the best approach to categorization is unknown. We assessed the association of common measures of diastolic function with clinical outcomes and tested the utility of a simplified definition of diastolic dysfunction against the American Society of(More)