Samuel Bowes

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Reaction time was studied in 103 subjects with idiopathic parkinsonism and 144 without. Central processing time, as measured by the response to a warning, had a component which could be explained by the presence or absence of parkinsonism, but not by the ageing process, a mental test score, or consumption of exogenous substances. Depression did not(More)
1. We have used gait analysis to investigate the efficacy of maintenance therapy with a levodopa/carbidopa combination in patients with idiopathic Parkinsonism, who do not have overt fluctuations in control in relation to administration of medication. 2. Fourteen patients (aged 64 to 88 years) receiving maintenance therapy with levodopa and carbidopa(More)
Work on the causation of idiopathic parkinsonism is limited by relying on gross clinical definition and lack of studies in the old. A prognostic index for parkinsonism, based on hypo/bradykinesia of gait, had considerably higher values in spouses of 20 aged suffers, who had been cohabiting for about half a century, than in 40 controls. Postural abnormality,(More)
We address, from a pharmacokinetic viewpoint, the important question of why some patients with clinical idiopathic Parkinson's disease experience a fall off in benefit from levodopa maintenance therapy. Thirteen such patients, of mean age 78 y, without overt fluctuations in motor control in temporal relation to dosing with a levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor(More)
We have investigated whether the potential benefits of a controlled release formulation of levodopa (200 mg)/carbidopa (50 mg), Sinemet CR, are realised during maintenance therapy. Eight sufferers from idiopathic Parkinsonism, mean age 69.9 y, were studied: all exhibited “end of dose” effect within 4 h of a dose of their maintenance therapy with levodopa(More)
In 144 healthy, active, asymptomatic volunteers (aged 30-88 years), age explained 33% of the variance in free walking speed. This could not be ascribed simply to differences in physique at maturity, since height had a more important effect on speed (p less than 0.0001) than did leg length (p less than 0.01). Multiple linear regression was used to fit models(More)
1. Stride length is highly relevant to mobility and is sensitive to the effects of levodopa in Parkinsonism. Its selection as the primary outcome criterion allowed comparison of two levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor formulations using a small number of subjects. 2. It is also desirable to improve stability. An instrumental method, based on infrared(More)
Strains of intestinal bacteria were capable of deconjugating benzo[a]pyrene metabolites in vitro. The hydrolysis products, and other primary oxidative metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene, were stable to further degradation by the strains tested. Cytochromes P-450 and b5 were detectable in the mucosa of the guinea-pig small intestine, but not in the mucosae of the(More)
1. Normally during walking, the heel strikes the ground before the forefoot. Abnormalities of foot strike in idiopathic Parkinson's disease may be amenable to therapy: objective measurements may reveal response which is not clinically apparent. Occult changes in foot strike leading to instability may parallel the normal, age-related loss of striatal(More)