Samuel Abiven

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Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily--and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to climate change. Recent analytical and experimental(More)
The influence of biochemical characteristics of 15 crop residues on C and N mineralisation in soil was investigated by following the decomposition of roots, stems and leaves of four subtropical species and one temperate species buried into the soil. The C, N and polyphenols contents were measured in different biochemical pools obtained from residues of the(More)
Positive crop yield effects from biochar are likely explained by chemical, physical and/or biological factors. However, studies describing plant allometric changes are scarcer, but may be crucial to understand the biochar effect. The main aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of biochar on root architecture under field conditions in a(More)
In the present work, we compare the effect of mature crop residues mixed into a ferralitic soil or placed as a single layer on soil surface on the mineralisation of C and N over 55 days. As residues, we used dry stems of rice, soybean, sorghum, brachiaria and wheat. There were no significant effects of residue placement on C mineralisation kinetics.(More)
Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is considered one of the most stable components in soil and can represent more than 30% of total soil organic carbon (SOC). However, few estimates of global PyC stock or distribution exist and thus PyC is not included in any global carbon cycle models, despite its potential major relevance for the soil pool. To obtain a global(More)
Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) decomposes on centennial timescale in soils, but the processes regulating its decay are poorly understood. We conducted one of the first studies of PyOM and wood decomposition in a temperate forest using isotopically labeled organic substrate, and quantified microbial incorporation and physico-chemical transformations of PyOM(More)
It has been recently shown that the presence of charcoal might promote humus decomposition in the soil. We investigated the decomposition rate of charcoal and litters of different biochemical quality mixed together in a soil incubation under controlled conditions. Despite the large range of organic substrate quality used in this study, we did not find any(More)
Assessing lignin turnover in soil on the basis of a 13C natural abundance labeling approach relies on the assumption that chemical characteristics of labeled and control plant inputs are similar and that the 13C content difference between labeled and control plant inputs is constant within the plant parts. We analyzed lignin in soils, roots, stems and(More)
Trace element (TE) contamination of soils is a worldwide problem. However, although not considered safe anymore for food production without clean-up, many of these soils may still be used to produce biomass for non-food purposes such as biochar. Exploring the suitability of such biochar for the amendment of low-fertility soil, we investigated growth and(More)
Biochar properties vary, and characterization of biochars is necessary for assessing their potential to sequester carbon and improve soil functions. This study aimed at assessing key surface properties of agronomic relevance for products from slow pyrolysis at 250-800 °C, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), and flash carbonization. The study further aimed at(More)