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Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a protein enriched in astrocytes, and Tau, a protein abundant in neuronal microtubules, are being widely studied as biomarkers of brain injury, and persistent severity-dependent increases in brain and blood have been reported. Studies on the acute changes of these proteins after blast exposure are limited. Using a(More)
A mouse model of repeated blast exposure was developed using a compressed air-driven shock tube, to study the increase in severity of traumatic brain injury (bTBI) after multiple blast exposures. Isoflurane anesthetized C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 13.9, 20.6, and 25 psi single blast overpressure (BOP1) and allowed to recover for 5 days. BOP1 at 20.6 psi(More)
Respiratory toxicity and lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent soman was examined in guinea pigs without therapeutics to improve survival. A microinstillation inhalation exposure technique that aerosolizes the agent in the trachea was used to administer soman to anesthetized age and weight matched male guinea pigs.(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been recognized as one of the major regulators of stress responses after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Repeated blast exposure induces TBI (blast TBI) with a variable neuropathology at different brain regions. Since AChE inhibitors are being used as a line(More)
Explosive blast results in multiple organ injury and polytrauma, the intensity of which varies with the nature of the exposure, orientation, environment and individual resilience. Blast overpressure alone may not precisely indicate the level of body or brain injury after blast exposure. Assessment of the extent of body injury after blast exposure is(More)
Cholinergic activity has been recognized as a major regulatory component of stress responses after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Centrally acting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are also being considered as potential therapeutic candidates against TBI mediated cognitive impairments. We have evaluated the expression of molecules involved in(More)
The pathophysiology of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent behavioral deficits are not well understood. Unraveling the mechanisms of injury is critical to derive effective countermeasures against this form of neurotrauma. Preservation of the integrity of cellular DNA is crucial for the function and survival of cells. We evaluated the(More)
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury is complex and involves multiple factors including systemic pathophysiological factors in addition to direct brain injuries. We hypothesize that systemic activation of platelets/leukocytes plays a major role in the development and exacerbation of brain injury after blast exposure. A mouse model of repeated blast exposure(More)
Repeated blast exposures commonly induce traumatic brain injury (TBI) characterized by diffuse axonal injury (DAI). We hypothesized that degradation of cytoskeletal proteins in the brain can lead to DAI, and evaluated α-II spectrin degradation in the pathophysiology of blast-induced TBI using the tightly-coupled three repetitive blast exposure mice model(More)
The toxicity of organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents is attributed to their irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which leads to excessive accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) and is followed by the release of excitatory amino acids (EAA). EAAs sustain seizure activity and induce neuropathology due to over-stimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate(More)