Samuel A. M. Martin

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We describe the metabolic engineering of two strains of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius to divert their fermentative carbon flux from a mixed acid pathway, to one in which ethanol becomes the major product. This involved elimination of the lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase pathways by disruption of the ldh and pflB genes, respectively,(More)
Changes in dietary protein sources due to substitution of fish meal by other protein sources can have metabolic consequences in farmed fish. A proteomics approach was used to study the protein profiles of livers of rainbow trout that have been fed two diets containing different proportions of plant ingredients. Both diets control (C) and soy (S) contained(More)
Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that have proinflammatory, antiviral, and immunomodulatory effects and play a central role during a host response to pathogens. The IFN family contains both type I and type II molecules. While there are a number of type I IFNs, there is only one type II IFN. Recently both type I and type II IFN genes have been cloned in(More)
The immune response is an energy demanding process, which has effects in many physiological pathways in the body including protein and lipid metabolism. During an inflammatory response the liver is required to produce high levels of acute phase response proteins that attempt to neutralise an invading pathogen. Although this has been extensively studied in(More)
Antibacterial responses have been studied in Atlantic salmon following an acute intra peritoneal injection of a genetically attenuated (aroA(-)) strain of Aeromonas salmonicida known to elicit protective immunity. Three tissues were studied for transcriptional changes, the liver, head kidney and the gill. RNA was collected from fish 6, 12, 24 and 48 h(More)
The ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway is a major route of protein degradation and of particular importance in muscle proteolysis in mammals. In this study, the β proteasome subunit N3 and polyubiquitin genes of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were sequenced and tissue distribution of gene expression was examined. The effects of 14-day food(More)
The high dietary protein requirements of salmonid fish are met with fishmeal-based feed in commercial aquaculture. The sustainability of this practice is questionable and, therefore, the feasibility of substituting fishmeal with plant-based products needs to be investigated. We investigated growth and metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a(More)
*Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, U.K., ‡Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, U.K., §School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3US, U.K., {Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, BasAM-Genetics,(More)
Aquaculture of piscivorous fish is in continual expansion resulting in a global requirement to reduce the dependence on wild caught fish for generation of fishmeal and fish oil. Plant proteins represent a suitable protein alternative to fish meal and are increasingly being used in fish feed. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of(More)
The early stages of the immune response are regulated by key cytokines including both interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) which stimulate panels of responsive genes via conserved signal transduction pathways. To further our understanding of the transcriptional response to these cytokines in lower vertebrates we have utilized microarray analysis(More)