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The Neisseria gonorrhoeae type IV secretion system secretes chromosomal DNA that acts in natural transformation. To examine the mechanism of DNA processing for secretion, we made mutations in the putative relaxase gene traI and used nucleases to characterize the secreted DNA. The nuclease experiments demonstrated that the secreted DNA is single-stranded and(More)
AIM OF THE STUDY Microalbuminuria is currently the only diagnostic tool available for early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. The test is based on immunological detection of small quantities of albumin in the urinary samples of diabetes patients. There are several limitations of the use of microalbuminuria as an index of renal function. It is therefore(More)
A vital function of the cell membrane in all living organism is to maintain the membrane permeability barrier and fluidity. The composition of the phospholipid bilayer is distinct in archaea when compared to bacteria and eukarya. In archaea, isoprenoid hydrocarbon side chains are linked via an ether bond to the sn-glycerol-1-phosphate backbone. In bacteria(More)
Archaeal membrane lipid composition is distinct from Bacteria and Eukarya, consisting of isoprenoid chains etherified to the glycerol carbons. Biosynthesis of these lipids is poorly understood. Here we identify and characterize the archaeal membrane protein CDP-archaeol synthase (CarS) that catalyzes the transfer of the nucleotide to its specific archaeal(More)
Type IV pili (T4P) are ubiquitous and versatile bacterial cell surface structures involved in adhesion to host cells, biofilm formation, motility, and DNA uptake. In Gram-negative bacteria, T4P pass the outer membrane (OM) through the large, oligomeric, ring-shaped secretin complex. In the β-proteobacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the native PilQ secretin(More)
BACKGROUND Most strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae carry a Gonococcal Genetic Island which encodes a type IV secretion system involved in the secretion of ssDNA. We characterize the GGI-encoded ssDNA binding protein, SsbB. Close homologs of SsbB are located within a conserved genetic cluster found in genetic islands of different proteobacteria. This cluster(More)
The type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded within the gonococcal genetic island (GGI) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has homology to the T4SS encoded on the F plasmid. The GGI encodes the putative pilin protein TraA and a serine protease TrbI, which is homologous to the TraF protein of the RP4 plasmid involved in circularization of pilin subunits of P-type pili.(More)
Structures of the type IV pili secretin complexes from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, embedded in outer membranes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Single particle averaging revealed additional domains not observed previously. Secretin complexes of N. gonorrhoeae showed a double ring structure with a 14-15-fold(More)
In archaea, the membrane phospholipids consist of isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains that are ether-linked to a sn-glycerol1-phosphate backbone. This unique structure is believed to be vital for the adaptation of these micro-organisms to extreme environments, but it also reflects an evolutionary marker that distinguishes archaea from bacteria and eukaryotes.(More)
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