Samsoon Inayat

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We performed genome-wide chemical mutagenesis of C57BL/6J mice using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). Electroretinographic screening of the third generation offspring revealed two G3 individuals from one G1 family with a normal a-wave but lacking the b-wave that we named nob4. The mutation was transmitted with a recessive mode of inheritance and mapped to(More)
An electroretinogram (ERG) screen identified a mouse with a normal a-wave but lacking a b-wave, and as such it was designated no b-wave3 (nob3). The nob3 phenotype mapped to chromosome 11 in a region containing the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 gene (Grm6). Sequence analyses of cDNA identified a splicing error in Grm6, introducing an insertion and an(More)
An accurate description of the electrode-electrolyte interfacial impedance is critical to the development of computational models of neural recording and stimulation that aim to improve understanding of neuro-electric interfaces and to expedite electrode design. This work examines the effect that the electrode-electrolyte interfacial impedance has upon the(More)
Influenza A virus encodes an integral membrane protein, A/M2, that forms a pH-gated proton channel that is essential for viral replication. The A/M2 channel is a target for the anti-influenza drug amantadine, although the effectiveness of this drug has been diminished by the appearance of naturally occurring point mutations in the channel pore. Thus, there(More)
The superior colliculus (SC) is a layered midbrain structure important for multimodal integration and sensorimotor transformation. Its superficial layers are purely visual and receive depth-specific projections from distinct subtypes of retinal ganglion cells. Here we use two-photon calcium imaging to characterize the response properties of neurons in the(More)
OBJECTIVE No cure currently exists for photoreceptor degenerative diseases, which cause partial or total blindness in millions of people worldwide. Electrical retinal prostheses have been developed by several groups with the goal of restoring vision lost to these diseases, but electrical stimulation has limitations. It excites both somas and axons,(More)
With a conventional patch-clamp electrode, an Ag/AgCl wire sits stationary inside the pipette. To move from the gigaseal cell-attached configuration to whole-cell recording, suction is applied inside the pipette. We have designed and developed a novel Pushpen patch-clamp electrode, in which a W wire insulated and wound with Ag/AgCl wire can move linearly(More)
During a conventional whole-cell patch clamp experiment, diffusible cytosolic ions or molecules absent in the pipette solution can become diluted by a factor of one million or more, leading to diminished current or fluorescent signals. Existing methods to prevent or limit cytosol diffusion include reducing the diameter of the pipette's orifice, adding(More)
Subretinal stimulation of the retina with neurotransmitters, the normal means of conveying visual information, is a potentially better alternative to electrical stimulation widely used in current retinal prostheses for treating blindness from photoreceptor degenerative diseases. Yet, no subretinal electrical or chemical stimulation study has stimulated the(More)
Retinal degenerative diseases cause partial or total blindness and affect millions of people worldwide, yet currently have no treatment. Retinal prostheses using electrical stimulation are being developed but face significant problems moving forward. Here we propose using chemical stimulation, via the neurotransmitter glutamate, to modulate retinal ganglion(More)