Samoel A Khamadi

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In Kenya, HIV diagnosis is not routinely carried out in infants, and yet rapid diagnosis could improve access to lifesaving interventions. A cheap and readily accessible service can resolve this problem, if feasible. In this pilot study the feasibility and costs of provision of an infant HIV diagnosis service in Kenya are evaluated. Dried blood spots (DBS)(More)
In 2008, the global urban population surpassed the rural population and by 2050 more than 6 billion will be living in urban centres. A growing body of research has reported on poor health outcomes among the urban poor but not much is known about HIV prevalence among this group. A survey of nearly 3000 men and women was conducted in two Nairobi slums in(More)
Increased frequency of arbovirus outbreaks in East Africa necessitated the determination of distribution of risk by entomologic arbovirus surveillance. A systematic vector surveillance programme spanning 5 years and covering 11 sites representing seven of the eight provinces in Kenya and located in diverse ecological zones was carried out. Mosquitoes were(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the HIV Infant Tracking System (HITSystem) for quality improvement of early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV services. DESIGN AND SETTING This observational pilot study compared 12 months of historical preintervention EID outcomes at one urban and one peri-urban government hospital in Kenya(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses coinfection is common in Sub-Saharan Africa due to similar routes of transmission and high levels of poverty. Most studies on HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses have occurred in hospital settings and blood transfusion units. Data on Hepatitis B and C viruses and HIV-1 coinfection in informal urban settlements(More)
Circulating strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit an extraordinary degree of genetic diversity and have been classified on the basis of relationships into distinct lineages called groups, types, subtypes, and subsubtypes. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are known to be a risk factor for HIV infection. To establish HIV-1 subtype(More)
The treatment of HIV-1 infection with antiretroviral drugs has greatly improved the survival of those who are infected. However, HIV-1 diversity and drug resistance are major challenges in patient management, especially in resource-poor countries. To evaluate HIV-1 genetic diversity and drug resistance-associated mutations among drug-naive patients in Kenya(More)
The genetic subtypes of HIV-1 circulating in northern Kenya have not been characterized. Here we report the partial sequencing and analysis of samples collected in the years 2003 and 2004 from 72 HIV-1-positive patients in northern Kenya, which borders Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. From the analysis of partial env sequences, it was determined that 50% were(More)
We analyzed prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) data from a retrospective cohort of n = 1365 HIV+ mothers who enrolled their HIV-exposed infants in early infant diagnosis services in four Kenyan government hospitals from 2010 to 2012. Less than 15 and 20 % of mother-infant pairs were provided with regimens that met WHO Option A and B/B+(More)
The ever-expanding rollout of antiretroviral therapy in poor resource settings without routine virological monitoring has been accompanied with development of drug resistance that has resulted in limited treatment success. A cross-sectional study with one time viral load was conducted during the period between 2012 and 2013 to determine treatment failure(More)