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A compact microwave driven plasma based multi-element focused ion beam system has been developed. In the present work, the effect of reduced beam limiter (BL) aperture on the focused ion beam parameters, such as current and spot size, and a method of controlling beam energy independently by introducing a biased collector at focal point (FP) are(More)
We are interested in the risk of large losses of certain common financial portfolios (e.g. credit portfolios with default risk). In these cases, we would like to estimate a risk statistic called Value-at-Risk (VaRα) at an extremely high risk level α (typically 99.99%). This high risk level corresponds to rare events for which it is difficult or impossible(More)
The principle and physics issues of charged particle beam diagnostics using a current flux grating are presented. Unidirectional array of conducting channels with interstitial insulating layers of spacing d is placed in the beam path to capture flux of charge and electronically reproduce an exact beam current profile with density variation. The role of(More)
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