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In Fall 2008 NASA selected a large international consortium to produce a comprehensive automated feature-recognition system for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The SDO data that we consider are all of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images plus surface magnetic-field images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). We produce robust,(More)
Charge-transfer quenching of the singlet excited states of cyanoaromatic electron acceptors by pyridine is characterized by a driving force dependence that resembles those of conventional electron-transfer reactions, except that a plot of the log of the quenching rate constants versus the free energy of electron transfer is displaced toward the endothermic(More)
As recently proposed, the singlet-excited states of several cyanoaromatics react with pyridine via bonded-exciplex formation, a novel concept in photochemical charge transfer reactions. Presented here are electronic and steric effects on the quenching rate constants, which provide valuable support for the model. Additionally, excited-state quenching in(More)
Rate constants (k) for exergonic and endergonic electron-transfer reactions of equilibrating radical cations (A(•+) + B ⇌ A + B(•+)) in acetonitrile could be fit well by a simple Sandros-Boltzmann (SB) function of the reaction free energy (ΔG) having a plateau with a limiting rate constant k(lim) in the exergonic region, followed, near the thermoneutral(More)
In a landmark publication over 40 years ago, Rehm and Weller (RW) showed that the electron transfer quenching constants for excited-state molecules in acetonitrile could be correlated with the excited-state energies and the redox potentials of the electron donors and acceptors. The correlation was interpreted in terms of electron transfer between the(More)
It is ironic that the Ancient Egyptian tombs, once sealed, were not intended to be seen by outsiders. Yet the highly valued and often reproduced tomb decorations have had a profound influence on art and have contributed significantly to our understanding of the Ancient Egyptian culture. This article describes how recent advances in computational and digital(More)
Electronically excited molecules, being better electron donors and acceptors than their ground states, form charge-transfer complexes (exciplexes) which can lead to radical ions. Exciplex emission is widely used to probe polymers and organized media such as membranes and micelles. Exciplexes are also intermediates in photoreactions that lead to unique(More)
As we reported recently, endergonic to mildly exergonic electron transfer between neutral aromatics (benzenes and biphenyls) and their radical cations in acetonitrile follows a Sandros-Boltzmann (SB) dependency on the reaction free energy (ΔG); i.e., the rate constant is proportional to 1/[1 + exp(ΔG/RT)]. We now report deviations from this dependency when(More)
[reaction: see text] Deprotonation of the radical cations of aromatic amines, such as anilines, generally occurs much more slowly than other fragmentation reactions. Here we report a stereoelectronic effect involving twisting of the anilino group out of the plane of the benzene ring that results in a significantly increased rate of reactivity toward(More)
Exciplexes of 2,6,9,10-tetracyanoanthracene (TCA) with alkylbenzenes were investigated in solvents ranging from cyclohexane to acetonitrile. Plots of the reduced emission maxima or the average emission frequency (hνav) versus redox potential differences (Eredox) were linear with a slope of ∼1 in all solvents, which is consistent with the highly ionic(More)