Learn More
OBJECTIVES To determine whether patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) have serum antibodies to lipoprotein-related protein 4 (LRP4), a newly identified receptor for agrin that is essential for neuromuscular junction formation, and to establish whether such antibodies contribute to MG pathogenesis. DESIGN Serum samples from patients with MG with known(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence of B-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). B-cell activating factor (BAFF) has an essential role in B-cell homeostasis. The chemokine CXCL13 has an important role in the formation and maintenance of B-cell follicles. OBJECTIVE To measure BAFF and CXCL13 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid(More)
Cytokines, proteins that are secreted by many cells, including inflammatory and glial cells, mediate interactions between cells, generally through paracrine and autocrine networks. Their effects are highly pleiotropic, with overlap of some activities. The pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), especially the classic inflammatory demyelinating(More)
B cells are important in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and some of the effects are not dependent on maturation of B cells into immunoglobulin (Ig) producing plasmablasts and plasma cells. B cells present antigen, activate T cells, and are involved in immunoregulation and cytokine secretion. To determine if B cells from MS patients secrete(More)
To determine if patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) have antibodies to agrin, a proteoglycan released by motor neurons and is critical for neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation, we collected serum samples from 93 patients with MG with known status of antibodies to acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle specific kinase (MuSK) and lipoprotein-related 4(More)
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease mediated by antibodies directed to molecules of the endplate of the neuromuscular junction. B cells play a major role in MG disease since they produce the pathogenic antibodies and therapies targeting B cells are effective. The aim of this article was to review the role of B cells in myasthenia gravis. We will(More)
This study was undertaken to characterize and compare T lymphocyte function from the vigorous and modulated liver granulomas of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Although both types of lesion contained equal percentages of T lymphocytes, the T cell subset distribution was different. For vigorous lesions, the ratio of helper/effector to suppressor/cytotoxic(More)
BAFF is a potent B-cell survival factor, and it plays an essential role in B-cell homeostasis and B-cell function in the periphery. Both normal and autoreactive B cells are BAFF dependent; however, excess BAFF promotes the survival, growth, and maturation of autoreactive B cells. When overexpressed, BAFF protects B cells from apoptosis, thereby contributing(More)
The culture of neonatal rat Schwann cells (SC) with unfractionated cytokines induces an increase in SC proliferation. Previous studies demonstrated that while incubation of SC with interleukin-1(IL-1) does not result in enhanced SC mitogenesis, a mixture of antibodies to IL-1 alpha plus IL-1 beta inhibits cytokine-induced proliferation. We undertook the(More)