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Attention alterations are reported in cirrhotics. Aiming at clarifying attention functioning in cirrhotics, an inquiry on the functioning of the anterior (AAS) and the posterior (PAS) attention system was performed. Thirty-six cirrhotics without overt hepatic encephalopathy (24 with EEG or TMT-A alterations) and 16 matched control subjects were enrolled.(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe auditory perceptual, pre-attentive, attention-related and cognitive processes along lifespan in normal people by a simple auditory oddball paradigm easily usable in clinical practice. METHODS ERPs were recorded in 72 normal subjects. Four blocks of tones were delivered (20% rare 2,000 Hz and 80% frequent 1,000 Hz). In the former two(More)
Awareness of previous hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and compliance with treatment can probably reduce HE recurrence. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of awareness of previous HE and its treatment in a group of cirrhotic patients and their caregivers. Thirty-five cirrhotic patients with a history of HE and their caregivers (n = 31) were enrolled.(More)
These studies examine the possibility that drugs (amphetamine and apomorphine) affecting dopamine metabolism might show conditioning properties and tests the hypothesis that dopaminergic activity might be responsible for any conditioning seen. If environmental cues can act as conditioning signals, affecting the activity of dopaminergic neurons, conditioning(More)
The relationship between hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and the sleep-wake disturbances exhibited by patients with cirrhosis remains debated. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of sleep-wake interview within the context of HE assessment. One-hundred-and-six cirrhotic patients were asked three yes/no questions investigating the presence of(More)
Reaction times are usually faster when stimulus and response occur at the same location than when they do not, even if stimulus location is irrelevant to the task (Simon effect). This effect was found with both horizontal and vertical stimulus-response arrangements. The same mechanisms have been proposed to be involved in either case. Here, we compared a(More)
Abnormality in movement initiation may partially explain psychomotor delay of cirrhotic patients, even in the absence of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms of psychomotor delay observed in patients with cirrhosis in the absence of overt HE. Fourteen patients with nonalcoholic cirrhosis and 12(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the effect of hyperammonaemia on the wake electroencephalogram (EEG) of patients with cirrhosis and healthy volunteers. METHODS Wake EEGs were recorded prior to and after the induction of controlled hyperammonaemia in 10 patients with cirrhosis and 10 matched healthy volunteers. RESULTS At baseline, patients had higher ammonaemia than(More)
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is the term applied to the neuropsychiatric status of patients with cirrhosis who are unimpaired on clinical examination but show alterations in neuropsychological tests exploring psychomotor speed/executive function and/or in neurophysiological variables. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of this syndrome. As these(More)
We propose a Bayesian method to extract single-trial event related potentials (ERPs). The method is formulated in two stages. In the first stage, each of the N raw sweeps is processed by an individual "optimal" filter, where the 2nd order a priori statistical information on the background EEG and on the unknown ERP is, respectively, estimated from(More)