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We make a systematic study of a new combinatorial construction called a dual equivalence graph. We axiomatize these graphs and prove that their generating functions are symmetric and Schur positive. By constructing a graph on ribbon tableaux which we transform into a dual equivalence graph, we give a combinatorial proof of the symmetry and Schur positivity(More)
We study how many riffle shuffles are required to mix n cards if only certain features of the deck are of interest, e.g. suits disregarded or only the colors of interest. For a wide variety of features, the number of shuffles drops from 3 2 log 2 n to log 2 n. We derive closed formulae and an asymptotic 'rule of thumb' formula which is remarkably accurate.
The Pieri rule expresses the product of a Schur function and a single row Schur function in terms of Schur functions. We extend the classical Pieri rule by expressing the product of a skew Schur function and a single row Schur function in terms of skew Schur functions. Like the classical rule, our rule involves simple additions of boxes to the original skew(More)
Inspired by the k-inversion statistic for LLT polynomials, we define a k-inversion number and k-descent set for words. Using these, we define a new statistic on words, called the k-major index, that interpolates between the major index and inversion number. We give a bijective proof that the k-major index is equi-distributed with the major index,(More)
For any polynomial representation of the special linear group, the nodes of the corresponding crystal may be indexed by semi-standard Young tableaux. Under certain conditions, the standard Young tableaux occur, and do so with weight 0. Standard Young tableaux also parametrize the vertices of dual equivalence graphs. Motivated by the underlying(More)
By considering type B analogs of permutations and tableaux, we extend abstract dual equivalence to type B in two directions. In one direction, we define involutions on shifted tableaux that give a dual equivalence, thereby giving another proof of the Schur positivity of Schur Q-and P-functions. In another direction, we define an abstract shifted dual(More)
AIMS   To perform an international trial to derive alert and action levels for the use of quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the monitoring of Legionella to determine the effectiveness of control measures against legionellae. METHODS AND RESULTS   Laboratories (7) participated from six countries. Legionellae were determined by culture and qPCR methods with(More)