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—One of the problems associated with iterative learning control algorithms is the selection of a " proper " learning gain matrix for every discrete-time sample and for all successive iterations. This problem becomes more difficult in the presence of random disturbances such as measurement noise, reinitialization errors, and state disturbance. In this paper,(More)
To date, most of the available results in learning control have been utilized in applications where a robot is required to execute the same motion over and over again, with a certain periodicity. This is due to the requirement that all learning algorithms assume that a desired output is given a priori over the time duration t in [0,T]. For applications(More)
—Arbitrary high precision output tracking is one of the most desirable control objectives found in industrial applications regardless of measurement errors. The main purpose of this paper is to supply to the iterative learning control (ILC) designer guidelines to select the corresponding learning gain in order to achieve this control objective. For example,(More)
A recursive optimal algorithm, based on minimizing the input error covariance matrix, is derived to generate the optimal forgetting matrix and the learning gain matrix of a P-type ILC for linear discrete-time varying systems with arbitrary relative degree. This paper shows that a forgetting matrix is neither needed for boundedness of trajectories nor for(More)
The inherent problem of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is signal obstruction, remains the major obstacle that inhibits it from functioning as a "reliable stand-alone" positioning system. Therefore, it is becoming a common practice to couple the GPS system with an external positioning system whenever the GPS receiver is expected to operate in(More)
Birds use a variety of environmental cues, such as day length, temperature and social interactions, to time reproductive efforts. For most seasonally breeding birds, day length is the most important cue and takes precedence over all others. Experimental manipulation of day length has shown that, in a number of galliformes and passeriformes, exposure to a(More)