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Immunohistochemical distribution of cannabinoid receptors in the adult rat brain was studied using specific purified antibodies against the amino-terminus of the CB1 receptor. Our results generally agree well with the previous studies using CB1 receptor autoradiography and messenger RNA in situ hybridization. However, because of its greater resolution,(More)
We have found that phosphorylation of a G-protein-coupled receptor by protein kinase C (PKC) disrupts modulation of ion channels by the receptor. In AtT-20 cells transfected with rat cannabinoid receptor (CB1), the activation of an inwardly rectifying potassium current (Kir current) and depression of P/Q-type calcium channels by cannabinoids were prevented(More)
Cannabinoids and their analogues have been found to inhibit N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ currents in cell lines and sympathetic neurons transfected with cannabinoid CB1 receptor. However, the effects of cannabinoids on Ca2+ currents in the CNS are largely unexplored. In this study we investigated whether these compounds inhibit Ca2+ channels in cultured rat(More)
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are frequently overexpressed in tumors and have become promising targets for developing anti-cancer drugs. IAPs can be inhibited by natural antagonists, but a physiological requirement of mammalian IAP antagonists remains to be established. Here we show that deletion of the mouse Sept4 gene, which encodes the IAP(More)
Tolerance develops rapidly to cannabis, cannabinoids, and related drugs acting at the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. However, little is known about what happens to the receptor as tolerance is developing. In this study, we have found that CB1 receptors are rapidly internalized following agonist binding and receptor activation. Efficacious cannabinoid agonists(More)
Desensitization of cannabinoid receptor signaling by a G-protein coupled receptor kinase (GRK) was examined using the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Application of a CB1 agonist, WIN 55,212-2, evoked a concentration-dependent increase in K+ conductance (Kir3) in oocytes coexpressing rat CB1 with the G-protein-gated, inwardly rectifying K+ channels Kir3.1(More)
Adult stem cells are essential for tissue homeostasis and wound repair. Their proliferative capacity must be tightly regulated to prevent the emergence of unwanted and potentially dangerous cells, such as cancer cells. We found that mice deficient for the proapoptotic Sept4/ARTS gene have elevated numbers of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) that are(More)
We mutated a conserved aspartate in the second transmembrane domain of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor to asparagine (D164N), stably transfected it into AtT20 cells, and examined the coupling of this mutant receptor to several intracellular effectors that are targets of wild-type CB(1) receptor activation. We found that the D164N receptor binds the CB(1)(More)
Photoreceptor development begins in the larval eye imaginal disc, where eight distinct photoreceptor cells (R1-R8) are sequentially recruited into each of the developing ommatidial clusters. Final photoreceptor differentiation, including rhabdomere formation and rhodopsin expression, is completed during pupal life. During pupation, spalt was previously(More)
The role of cytochrome c (Cyt c) in caspase activation has largely been established from mammalian cell-culture studies, but much remains to be learned about its physiological relevance in situ. The role of Cyt c in invertebrates has been subject to considerable controversy. The Drosophila genome contains distinct cyt c genes: cyt c-p and cyt c-d. Loss of(More)