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Immunohistochemical distribution of cannabinoid receptors in the adult rat brain was studied using specific purified antibodies against the amino-terminus of the CB1 receptor. Our results generally agree well with the previous studies using CB1 receptor autoradiography and messenger RNA in situ hybridization. However, because of its greater resolution,(More)
Tolerance develops rapidly to cannabis, cannabinoids, and related drugs acting at the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. However, little is known about what happens to the receptor as tolerance is developing. In this study, we have found that CB1 receptors are rapidly internalized following agonist binding and receptor activation. Efficacious cannabinoid agonists(More)
We have found that phosphorylation of a G-protein-coupled receptor by protein kinase C (PKC) disrupts modulation of ion channels by the receptor. In AtT-20 cells transfected with rat cannabinoid receptor (CB1), the activation of an inwardly rectifying potassium current (Kir current) and depression of P/Q-type calcium channels by cannabinoids were prevented(More)
Cannabinoids and their analogues have been found to inhibit N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ currents in cell lines and sympathetic neurons transfected with cannabinoid CB1 receptor. However, the effects of cannabinoids on Ca2+ currents in the CNS are largely unexplored. In this study we investigated whether these compounds inhibit Ca2+ channels in cultured rat(More)
Desensitization of cannabinoid receptor signaling by a G-protein coupled receptor kinase (GRK) was examined using the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Application of a CB1 agonist, WIN 55,212-2, evoked a concentration-dependent increase in K+ conductance (Kir3) in oocytes coexpressing rat CB1 with the G-protein-gated, inwardly rectifying K+ channels Kir3.1(More)
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are frequently overexpressed in tumors and have become promising targets for developing anti-cancer drugs. IAPs can be inhibited by natural antagonists, but a physiological requirement of mammalian IAP antagonists remains to be established. Here we show that deletion of the mouse Sept4 gene, which encodes the IAP(More)
Transcription of the Bacillus subtilis gene coding of glutamine synthetase (glnA) is regulated by the nitrogen source. The glnA gene lies in an operon in which it is preceded by an open reading frame with the potential to encode a polypeptide of approximately 16,000 Mr. We have now shown that this open reading frame is utilized in vivo, that its product(More)
We mutated a conserved aspartate in the second transmembrane domain of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor to asparagine (D164N), stably transfected it into AtT20 cells, and examined the coupling of this mutant receptor to several intracellular effectors that are targets of wild-type CB(1) receptor activation. We found that the D164N receptor binds the CB(1)(More)
Adult stem cells are essential for tissue homeostasis and wound repair. Their proliferative capacity must be tightly regulated to prevent the emergence of unwanted and potentially dangerous cells, such as cancer cells. We found that mice deficient for the proapoptotic Sept4/ARTS gene have elevated numbers of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) that are(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptance of 3 types of mouthguards 1) stock, 2) boil and bite, and 3) custom-made by 7-8 year old children playing organized soccer. Three teams volunteered to participate and the type of mouthguard was randomly selected for each team. The children were fitted for the mouthguards and after wearing them, a(More)