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Peers have intervened to promote health since ancient times, yet few attempts have been made to describe theoretically their role and their interventions. After a brief overview of the history and variety of peer-based health interventions, a 4-part definition of peer interveners is presented here with a consideration of the dimensions of their involvement(More)
BACKGROUND Because a large proportion of patients with panic attacks receiving approved pharmacotherapy do not respond or respond poorly to medication, it is important to identify additional therapeutic strategies for the management of panic symptoms. This article describes a randomized, rater-blind study comparing low-dose risperidone to standard-of-care(More)
BACKGROUND text-messaging systems have been used to promote a range of health behaviors, including medication adherence among human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals. However, little is currently known about the specific characteristics of messaging systems that promote user engagement. OBJECTIVE using data from a randomized controlled trial(More)
Behavioral interventions to prevent HIV or assist HIV-positive persons often incorporate peers, yet empirical support for their efficacy is only recently accumulating. We describe the results of a review of the global literature, identifying 117 studies evaluating the efficacy of peer-based interventions in the area of HIV/AIDS. About half were conducted in(More)
Knowing at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation which patients might be at greatest risk for failure to achieve viral suppression would enable providers to target patients most in need and tailor their care appropriately. This study involved multilevel modeling of data from a randomized controlled trial among outpatients in Seattle, WA, USA. The 224(More)
Greater understanding of barriers to risk reduction among incarcerated HIV+ persons reentering the community is needed to inform culturally tailored interventions. This qualitative study elicited HIV prevention-related information, motivation and behavioral skills (IMB) needs of 30 incarcerated HIV+ men and women awaiting release from state prison. Unmet(More)
The authors review the literature relating hypnotizability and posttraumatic stress. Sixty-seven abstracts containing the key terms ASD, acute stress, trauma, traumatic, or PTSD in combination with either hypnotic susceptibility or hypnotizability were reviewed. Six articles were found containing data on hypnotizability and posttraumatic stress symptoms.(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the concept of the negative syndrome as a dimensional entity that exists in multiple primary diagnoses, and to compare the negative syndrome in nonschizophrenic disorders and schizophrenia. BACKGROUND Although initially considered specific to schizophrenia, the negative syndrome has subsequently been described in major depression,(More)
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) greatly reduces morbidity and mortality for people with HIV/AIDS. However, for optimal effectiveness patients must achieve strict adherence to dosing regimens, which is difficult to maintain over the long term. Interventions to improve adherence have shown promising results, but with small effects. One explanation for small(More)
Alcohol dependence (AD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, yet limited research has focused on PTSD and daily drinking as they relate to self-appraised alcohol-related problems. In treatment contexts, patients' appraisals of alcohol-related problems have implications for assessment, intervention strategies, and prognosis. This(More)