Samantha M. Miller

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Mechanosensitive (MS) channels that provide protection against hypoosmotic shock are found in the membranes of organisms from the three domains of life: bacteria, archaea, and eucarya. Two families of ubiquitous MS channels are recognized, and these have been designated the MscL and MscS families. A high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structure is(More)
The mechanosensitive (MS) channels MscS and MscL are essential for the survival of hypoosmotic shock by Escherichia coli cells. We demonstrate that MscS and MscL are induced by osmotic stress and by entry into stationary phase. Reduced levels of MS proteins and reduced expression of mscL- and mscS-LacZ fusions in an rpoS mutant strain suggested that the RNA(More)
The crystal structure of an open form of the Escherichia coli MscS mechanosensitive channel was recently solved. However, the conformation of the closed state and the gating transition remain uncharacterized. The pore-lining transmembrane helix contains a conserved glycine- and alanine-rich motif that forms a helix-helix interface. We show that introducing(More)
The major structural features of the Escherichia coli MscS mechanosensitive channel protein have been explored using alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) fusions, precise deletions and site-directed mutations. PhoA protein fusion data, combined with the positive-inside rule, strongly support a model in which MscS crosses the membrane three times, adopting an(More)
How ion channels are gated to regulate ion flux in and out of cells is the subject of intense interest. The Escherichia coli mechanosensitive channel, MscS, opens to allow rapid ion efflux, relieving the turgor pressure that would otherwise destroy the cell. We present a 3.45 angstrom-resolution structure for the MscS channel in an open conformation. This(More)
Mechanosensitive channels play major roles in protecting bacteria from hypo-osmotic shock. In the millisecond timescale they must achieve the transition from tightly closed oligomers to large, relatively non-discriminating pores. The crystal structure for MscL, combined with genetic and biochemical analysis, provided the initial insights for the mechanism(More)
The regulation of cation content is critical for cell growth. However, the molecular mechanisms that gate the systems that control K+ movements remain unclear. KTN is a highly conserved cytoplasmic domain present ubiquitously in a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic K+ channels and transporters. Here we report crystal structures for two representative KTN(More)
Therapeutics that target ERBB2, such as lapatinib, often provide initial clinical benefit, but resistance frequently develops. Adaptive responses leading to lapatinib resistance involve reprogramming of the kinome through reactivation of ERBB2/ERBB3 signaling and transcriptional upregulation and activation of multiple tyrosine kinases. The heterogeneity of(More)
Mechanosensitive channels must make a large conformational change during the transition from the closed to the open state. The crystal structure of the open form of the Escherichia coli MscS channel was recently solved and depicts a homoheptamer (1). In this study, cross-linking of site-specific cysteine substitutions demonstrates that residues up to 10-33(More)
Mechanosensitive channels sense elevated membrane tension that arises from rapid water influx occurring when cells move from high to low osmolarity environments (hypoosmotic shock). These non-specific channels in the cytoplasmic membrane release osmotically-active solutes and ions. The two major mechanosensitive channels in Escherichia coli are MscL and(More)