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The autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) results from low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein; however, it is unclear how reduced SMN promotes SMA development. Here, we determined that ubiquitin-dependent pathways regulate neuromuscular pathology in SMA. Using mouse models of SMA, we observed widespread(More)
Western blotting has been a key technique for determining the relative expression of proteins within complex biological samples since the first publications in 1979. Recent developments in sensitive fluorescent labels, with truly quantifiable linear ranges and greater limits of detection, have allowed biologists to probe tissue specific pathways and(More)
Despite intensive studies on sheep scrapie, a number of questions remain unanswered, such as the natural mode of transmission and the amount of infectivity which accumulates in edible tissues at different stages of scrapie infection. Studies using the mouse model proved to be useful for recognizing scrapie strain diversity, but the low sensitivity of mice(More)
The late 1970s saw the first publicly reported use of the western blot, a technique for assessing the presence and relative abundance of specific proteins within complex biological samples. Since then, western blotting methodology has become a common component of the molecular biologists experimental repertoire. A cursory search of PubMed using the term(More)
It has long been established that the sheep Prnp genotype influences the susceptibility to scrapie, and some studies suggest that it can also determine several aspects of the disease phenotype. Other studies, however, indicate that the source of infection may also play a role in such phenotype. To address this question an experiment was set up in which(More)
The prion protein gene (Prnp) is highly influential in determining risk and susceptibility of sheep exposed to classical scrapie. Sheep homozygous for alanine at codon 136 and arginine at codons 154 and 171 (ARR/ARR) of the Prnp gene are historically considered to be highly resistant to classical scrapie, although they form a significant fraction of cases(More)
The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterised by the accumulation of a pathological form of a host protein known as prion protein (PrP). The validation of abnormal PrP detection techniques is fundamental to allow the use of high-throughput laboratory based tests,(More)
Previous in vivo studies left the scientific community with the assumption that rabbits were resistant to prion diseases. However, our recent findings proved they are susceptible. The in vitro results were essential to demonstrate that prion protein (PrP) from every species has the potential to become not only misfolded to a disease associated form, but(More)
The world health organisation has declared neurological disorders as one of the greatest public health risks in the world today. Yet, despite this growing concern, the mechanisms underpinning many of these conditions are still poorly understood. This may in part be due to the seemingly diverse nature of the initiating insults ranging from genetic (such as(More)
Quantification of immunohistochemically (IHC) labelled tissue sections typically yields semi-quantitative results. Visualising infrared (IR) 'tags', with an appropriate scanner, provides an alternative system where the linear nature of the IR fluorophore emittance enables realistic quantitative fluorescence IHC (QFIHC). Importantly, this new technology(More)