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BACKGROUND Scoping studies are increasingly common for broadly searching the literature on a specific topic, yet researchers lack an agreed-upon definition of and framework for the methodology. In 2005, Arksey and O'Malley offered a methodological framework for conducting scoping studies. In their subsequent work, Levac et al. responded to Arksey and(More)
The effects of 5 mg/kg/day diazepam (IP for 21-39 days) on righting reflex latency (RRL) and neuronal activity in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) were investigated in guinea pigs. Diazepam treatment increased the RRL relative to vehicle-injected controls (p < 0.05, ANOVA); although the average RRL in the diazepam-treated animals did decrease over time,(More)
Speculation continues regarding the accurate classification of selective mutism and potential etiologic factors. Current research has shed some light on several factors that may predispose some children to this disorder, but conclusions are difficult to draw due to reliance on subjective measures, few comparison groups, and/or limited theoretical grounding.(More)
Smoking initiation predominantly occurs during adolescence, often in the presence of peers. Therefore, understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the rewarding effects of nicotine and social stimuli is vital. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, we measured immediate early gene (IEG) expression in animals following exposure either to(More)
The mammalian brain has evolved in close synchrony with the natural environment; consequently, trends toward disengagement from natural environments in today's industrialized societies may compromise adaptive neural responses and lead to psychiatric illness. Investigations of rodents housed in enriched environments indicate enhanced neurobiological(More)
It is shown that emotions can usefully be considered as states produced by reinforcing stimuli. The ways in which a wide variety of emotions can be produced, and the functions of emotion, are considered. There is evidence that the amygdala is involved in the formation of stimulus-reinforcement associations, and the orbitofrontal cortex with correcting(More)
A simple, inexpensive device is described that allows quantification of the effects of drugs on the righting reflex. This device consists of a modified set of kitchen scales connected to a digital timer. Two moveable Hall effect switches are positioned around the pointer, which registers the weight of the animal on the scales; when the animal is placed on(More)
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