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In this review we are concerned specifically with the putative role of the default-mode network (DMN) in the pathophysiology of mental disorders. First, we define the DMN concept with regard to its neuro-anatomy, its functional organisation through low frequency neuronal oscillations, its relation to other recently discovered low frequency resting state(More)
BACKGROUND Resting brain activity appears altered in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The default mode interference hypothesis (Sonuga-Barke and Castellanos, 2007) postulates that patterns of spontaneous very low frequency brain activity, typical of the resting brain, cause attention lapses in ADHD when they remain unattenuated following the(More)
BACKGROUND The default-mode network (DMN) is characterised by coherent very low frequency (VLF) brain oscillations. The cognitive significance of this VLF profile remains unclear, partly because of the temporally constrained nature of the blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal. Previously we have identified a VLF EEG network of scalp locations that(More)
Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) appear to be deficient in inhibitory processes, as reflected in behavioural and electrophysiological measures. This study examined the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on response inhibition in children with AD/HD. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and skin conductance level (SCL) were recorded(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to anticipate and then secure future rewards and avoid future punishments by responding effectively to environmental demands is at the core of successful decision making. Disruptions to these processes have been shown to be implicated in a number of psychiatric conditions. In the current paper we use the electrophysiological monetary(More)
RATIONALE Previous research investigating the effects of stimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPH), on children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) has rarely included autonomic measures of arousal. OBJECTIVE Our aim was to clarify the effects of MPH on central and autonomic measures in AD/HD children during a continuous performance task(More)
Cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition during acute intoxication as well as in the unintoxicated state in long-term users. However, the evidence has been mixed and contested, and no systematic reviews of the literature on neuropsychological task-based measures of cognition have been conducted in an attempt to synthesize the findings. We(More)
Chronic cannabis use has been associated with neurocognitive deficits, alterations in brain structure and function, and with psychosis. This study investigated the effects of chronic cannabis use on P50 sensory-gating in regular users, and explored the association between sensory gating, cannabis use history and the development of psychotic-like symptoms.(More)
BACKGROUND The ubiquitous tendency to choose immediate over delayed rewards can, in extremis, lead to maladaptive preferences for smaller sooner over larger later rewards (i.e., impulsive choice) in certain pathological groups. The delay aversion hypothesis provides one possible account of impulsive choice and argues that this tendency is motivated by the(More)
INTRODUCTION Vocal anger is a salient social signal serving adaptive functions in typical child development. Despite recent advances in the developmental neuroscience of emotion processing with regard to visual stimuli, little remains known about the neural correlates of vocal anger processing in childhood. This study represents the first attempt to isolate(More)