Samantha A. Chalmers

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The relative capacities for testicular macrophages and resident peritoneal macrophages to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1 (LL-1), in response to stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were compared in vitro. Macrophages were isolated from adult male rat testicular interstitial cells or peritoneal lavage by adherence to glass(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease which results in multiple different end organ pathologies, including the kidney. Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most serious complications of SLE, and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Current treatment options are suboptimal, involving non-specific immunosuppression which exposes(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease that can affect multiple end organs. Kidney and brain are two of the organs most commonly involved in SLE. Past studies have suggested the importance of macrophages in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN). Furthermore, as the immune effectors of the brain, microglia have been(More)
Lupus nephritis (LN) is a potentially dangerous end organ pathology that affects upwards of 60% of lupus patients. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is important for B cell development, Fc receptor signaling, and macrophage polarization. In this study, we investigated the effects of a novel, highly selective and potent BTK inhibitor, BI-BTK-1, in an inducible(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK, TNFSF12) and its sole receptor Fn14, belonging to the TNF ligand and receptor superfamilies respectively, are involved in cell survival and cytokine production. The role of TWEAK/Fn14 interactions in the pathogenesis of cutaneous lupus has not been explored. TWEAK treatment of murine PAM212(More)
Kidney involvement affects 40-60% of patients with lupus, and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Using depletion approaches, several studies have suggested that macrophages may play a key role in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. However, "off target" effects of macrophage depletion, such as altered hematopoiesis or enhanced(More)
Previously we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of murine mammary carcinomas resulted in decreased growth of the tumors. Here we show the decreased growth following LPS treatment was mediated through effects downstream of TLR4 and Myd88. Perhaps more notably, simply reducing TLR4 or Myd88 levels was sufficient to slow tumor growth rates.(More)
Neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE) can be one of the earliest clinical manifestations in human lupus. However, its mechanisms are not fully understood. In lupus, a compromised blood-brain barrier may allow for the passage of circulating autoantibodies into the brain, where they can induce neuropsychiatric abnormalities including depression-like behavior and(More)
The central nervous system manifestations of SLE (neuropsychiatric lupus, NPSLE) occur frequently, though are often difficult to diagnose and treat. Symptoms of NPSLE can be quite diverse, including chronic cognitive and emotional manifestations, as well as acute presentations, such as stroke and seizures. Although the pathogenesis of NPSLE has yet to be(More)
Previously we reported that Myd88 contributed to tumor progression. To begin to decipher what may be inducing Myd88 dependent signaling we focused on proteins that could function as damage associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) since DAMPs have been reported to be secreted by tumors, and certain DAMPs mediate effects through toll-like receptors. A(More)