Sam Toffa

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The cause of neuronal loss in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease is unknown. Oxidative stress and complex I deficiency have both been identified in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease but their place in the sequence of events resulting in dopaminergic cell death is uncertain. We have analysed respiratory chain activity, iron and reduced(More)
Nigral cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD) may involve oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction initiated by a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in substantia nigra. L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulphoximine (BSO; 4.8 and 9.6 mg/kg/day), an irreversible inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, was chronically infused into the left lateral(More)
OBJECTIVE Local authorities face real challenges when it comes to annual budget planning for funding the system of long-term care. Uncertainty about the long-term cost of caring for current residents in the system, in addition to unknown future admissions, have made the tasks of local authority budget managers very complex and demanding. In this paper, we(More)
Emergency readmission is seen as an important part of the United Kingdom government policy to improve the quality of care that patients receive. In this context, patients and the public have the right to know how well different health organizations are performing. Most methods for profiling estimate the expected numbers of adverse outcomes (e.g.(More)
Many of the outpatient services are currently only available in hospitals, however there are plans to provide some of these services alongside with General Practitioners. Consequently, General Practitioners could soon be based at polyclinics. These changes have caused a number of concerns to Hounslow Primary Care Trust (PCT). For example, which of the(More)
In this paper, we present a software tool that implements a novel modelling framework developed by the authors to provide useful information to budget planners for long-term care at local authority level. By combining unit costs of care with an underlying survival model for publicly funded residents in long-term care, the software tool is able to provide(More)
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