Sam J. Leinster

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Sera from 182 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were assayed for antibodies to p53 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, and antibodies were detected in 48 (26%) compared with 1 out of 76 (1.3%) normal control volunteers (P = 0.0001). In breast cancer patients, autoantibodies were found in all stages of disease progression:(More)
The intensity of angiogenesis as measured by the density of microvessels has been reported to be associated with a poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer in some, but not all, studies. The reasons for these discrepancies may be variations in the methodologies used. The monoclonal antibody used to identify the microvessels, the number of high-density areas(More)
BACKGROUND Isoflavones from soy and red clover exert modest hormonal effects in women, but the relevance to risk of breast cancer is unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effects of isoflavone-rich foods or supplements on a biomarker of breast cancer risk, women's mammographic density. METHODS Electronic searches were performed on The(More)
The messenger RNAs for the angiogenic acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors are expressed at a significantly higher level in samples of human benign neoplastic and hyperplastic tissue than in samples from breast cancers. However, approximately one in four malignant breast cancer samples contain basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA at the same level as(More)
An agent with the properties of a retrovirus has been detected regularly in monocytes from patients with breast cancer. In 97% of breast cancer patients the cell-free culture medium (CFCM) in which the monocytes had been cultured possessed reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. In contrast, RT activity was detected in the CFCM from only 11% of age and sex(More)
BACKGROUND The General Medical Council expects UK medical graduates to gain some statistical knowledge during their undergraduate education; but provides no specific guidance as to amount, content or teaching method. Published work on statistics teaching for medical undergraduates has been dominated by medical statisticians, with little input from the(More)
The expression of the protease cathepsin-D has been evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique with a polyclonal antibody in paraffin-embedded tissue from 359 patients treated between the years 1975-1981 for Stage I and II breast cancer. One hundred and twenty seven patients (35%) have strongly positive, granular staining, 138 (38%) are intermediately(More)
The assessment of a tumour's angiogenic potential, by measuring the microvessel density in histological sections, assumes that a 4-microm section is representative of whole tumour vascularity. This study has examined this assumption by comparing the vessel density found radiologically, after injecting specimens with contrast, with that found(More)
BACKGROUND Good communication is a crucial element of good clinical care, and it is important to provide appropriate consultation skills teaching in undergraduate medical training to ensure that doctors have the necessary skills to communicate effectively with patients and other key stakeholders. This article aims to provide research evidence of the(More)