Sam J. Leinster

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BACKGROUND Isoflavones from soy and red clover exert modest hormonal effects in women, but the relevance to risk of breast cancer is unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effects of isoflavone-rich foods or supplements on a biomarker of breast cancer risk, women's mammographic density. METHODS Electronic searches were performed on The(More)
BACKGROUND The General Medical Council expects UK medical graduates to gain some statistical knowledge during their undergraduate education; but provides no specific guidance as to amount, content or teaching method. Published work on statistics teaching for medical undergraduates has been dominated by medical statisticians, with little input from the(More)
An agent with the properties of a retrovirus has been detected regularly in monocytes from patients with breast cancer. In 97% of breast cancer patients the cell-free culture medium (CFCM) in which the monocytes had been cultured possessed reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. In contrast, RT activity was detected in the CFCM from only 11% of age and sex(More)
BACKGROUND Good communication is a crucial element of good clinical care, and it is important to provide appropriate consultation skills teaching in undergraduate medical training to ensure that doctors have the necessary skills to communicate effectively with patients and other key stakeholders. This article aims to provide research evidence of the(More)
BACKGROUND It is well established that trainee doctors struggle with the transition from medical school to starting work and feel unprepared for many aspects of their new role. There is evidence that suitable induction experiences improve competence and confidence, but available data indicate that trainee doctors on the UK Foundation Programme are commonly(More)
Medical student selection is an important but difficult task. Three recent papers by McManus et al. in BMC Medicine have re-examined the role of tests of attainment of learning (A' levels, GCSEs, SQA) and of aptitude (AH5, UKCAT), but on a much larger scale than previously attempted. They conclude that A' levels are still the best predictor of future(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence that newly qualified doctors do not feel prepared to start work. This study examined views of first year Foundation doctors (F1s) regarding how prepared they felt by their undergraduate medical education for skills required during the first Foundation training year in relation to their type of training. METHOD One-hundred and(More)
BACKGROUND The genus pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae includes bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus. The two recognised genotypes of BVDV are divided into subtypes based on phylogenetic analysis, namely a-p for BVDV-1 and a-c for BVDV-2. METHODS Three studies were conducted(More)