Sam G. Raney

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BACKGROUND Establishing the bioequivalence of topical drug products is a costly and time-consuming process since, with few exceptions, clinical efficacy trials are required. OBJECTIVE To develop a surrogate for clinical bioequivalence testing through evaluation of the kinetics of drug absorption in vitro through excised human skin. METHODS The(More)
AIMS To examine the existing literature to determine the degree to which percutaneous absorption data obtained using the excised human skin model match those obtained from living man. METHODS The scientific literature was reviewed to collect data on compounds whose percutaneous absorption through human skin had been measured under both in vitro and in(More)
The pharmacokinetic approach has accelerated the development of high-quality generic medicines with extraordinary cost savings, transforming the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare system in the USA. While this is true for systemically absorbed drug products, the availability of generic versions of topical dermatological products remains constrained due(More)
INTRODUCTION Exposure to heat can impact the clinical efficacy and/or safety of transdermal and topical drug products. Understanding these heat effects and designing meaningful in vitro and in vivo methods to study them are of significant value to the development and evaluation of drug products dosed to the skin. AREAS COVERED This review provides an(More)
The medical management of rosacea increasingly has involved not only the appropriate selection of topical medication but also patient education and specific recommendations regarding appropriate skin care. The recognition that epidermal barrier dysfunction and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) play a pathophysiologic role in rosacea and that skin(More)
An in vitro human percutaneous absorption study was conducted to assess the delivery of ketoprofen and testosterone from two base formulations, a Pluronic lecithin organogel and Pentravan Cream. Each formulation was applied to ex vivo human trunk skin (from three skin donors) on triplicate sections mounted onto Franz Diffusion Cells. Following a 5-mcL/cm2(More)
The benefits of transdermal delivery over the oral route to combat such issues of low bioavailability and limited controlled release opportunities are well known and have been previously discussed by many in the field (Prausnitz et al. (2004) [1]; Hadgraft and Lane (2006) [2]). However, significant challenges faced by developers as a product moves from the(More)
BACKGROUND The availability of generic topical dermatological drug products is constrained by the limited methods established to assess topical bioequivalence (BE). A novel cutaneous pharmacokinetic approach, dermal open-flow microperfusion (dOFM), can continuously assess the rate and extent to which a topical drug becomes available in the dermis, to(More)
A study was designed to assess barrier integrity simultaneously using separate compounds (probes) for polar and non-polar pathways through the skin, 3H2O and 14C-octanol, respectively; and to determine whether the two probe approach could better define barrier integrity. A 5-min dose of water containing 3H2O and 14C -octanol was applied to ex vivo human(More)
At elevated temperatures, the rate of drug release and skin permeation from transdermal delivery systems (TDS) may be higher than at a normal skin temperature. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of heat on the transdermal delivery of two model drugs, nicotine and fentanyl, from matrix-type TDSs with different formulations, using in vitro(More)