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Arc/Arg3.1 is robustly induced by plasticity-producing stimulation and specifically targeted to stimulated synaptic areas. To investigate the role of Arc/Arg3.1 in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, we generated Arc/Arg3.1 knockout mice. These animals fail to form long-lasting memories for implicit and explicit learning tasks, despite intact(More)
Aneuploidies are common chromosomal defects that result in growth and developmental deficits and high levels of lethality in humans. To gain insight into the biology of aneuploidies, we manipulated mouse embryonic stem cells and generated a trans-species aneuploid mouse line that stably transmits a freely segregating, almost complete human chromosome 21(More)
Two facts about the hippocampus have been common currency among neuroscientists for several decades. First, lesions of the hippocampus in humans prevent the acquisition of new episodic memories; second, activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is a prominent feature of hippocampal synapses. Given this background, the hypothesis that hippocampus-dependent(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a well-characterized form of synaptic plasticity that fulfils many of the criteria for a neural correlate of memory. LTP has been studied in a variety of animal models and, in rodents in particular, there is now a strong body of evidence demonstrating common underlying molecular mechanisms in LTP and memory. Results are(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase regulating diverse cellular functions including metabolism, transcription and cell survival. Numerous intracellular signalling pathways converge on GSK-3 and regulate its activity via inhibitory serine-phosphorylation. Recently, GSK-3 has been involved in learning and memory and in(More)
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of the human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Recently, O'Doherty and colleagues in an earlier study generated a new genetic mouse model of DS (Tc1) that carries an almost complete Hsa21. Since DS is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation, we have undertaken a detailed(More)
Stimulus-specific response potentiation (SRP) is a robust form of experience-dependent plasticity that occurs in primary visual cortex. In awake mice, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) recorded in layer 4 of binocular visual cortex undergo increases in amplitude with repeated presentation of a sinusoidal grating stimulus over days. This effect is highly(More)
The identification of the genetic determinants specifying neuronal networks in the mammalian brain is crucial for the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that ultimately control cognitive functions. Here we have generated a targeted allele of the LIM-homeodomain-encoding gene Lhx7 by replacing exons 3-5 with a LacZ reporter. In(More)
Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species,(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a form of experimentally induced enhancement of chemical synaptic transmission that has long been proposed as a model of the endogenous processes of synaptic plasticity that mediate memory. There is a large body of evidence that the molecular mechanisms underlying experimentally induced LTP also subserve various forms of(More)