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Measurements of early tumor responses to therapy have been shown, in some cases, to predict treatment outcome. We show in lymphoma-bearing mice injected intravenously with hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate that the lactate dehydrogenase–catalyzed flux of 13C label between the carboxyl groups of pyruvate and lactate in the tumor can be measured using 13C(More)
As alterations in tissue pH underlie many pathological processes, the capability to image tissue pH in the clinic could offer new ways of detecting disease and response to treatment. Dynamic nuclear polarization is an emerging technique for substantially increasing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging experiments. Here we show that tissue pH can be(More)
Measurements of the conversion of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate into lactate, in the reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase, have shown promise as a metabolic marker for the presence of disease and response to treatment. However, it is unclear whether this represents net flux of label from pyruvate to lactate or exchange of isotope between(More)
Choline-containing compounds (CCCs) are elevated in breast cancer, and detected in vivo by the (1)H MRS total choline (tCho) resonance (3.25 ppm) and the (31)P MRS phosphomonoester (PME) resonance (3.8 ppm). Both the tCho and PME resonances decrease early after initiation of successful therapy. The single major component of these composite resonances,(More)
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is an emerging technique for increasing the sensitivity of (13)C MR spectroscopy (MRS). [5-(13)C(1)]Glutamine was hyperpolarized using this technique by up to 5%, representing a 6000-fold increase in sensitivity. The conversion of hyperpolarized glutamine to glutamate by mitochondrial glutaminase was demonstrated using(More)
13C magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy Sam E Day, Mikko I Kettunen, Ferdia A Gallagher, De-En Hu, Mathilde Lerche, Jan Wolber, Klaes Golman, Jan Henrik Ardenkjaer-Larsen & Kevin M Brindle Nat. Med. 13, 1382–1387 (2007); published online 28 October 2007; corrected after print 12 November 2007. In the version of this article initially published,(More)
Dynamic nuclear polarization can be used to increase the sensitivity of solution state (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy by four orders of magnitude. We show here that [1-(13)C]glutamate can be polarized to 28%, representing a 35,000-fold increase in its sensitivity to detection at 9.4 T and 37°C. The metabolism of hyperpolarized glutamate to(More)
We show here that hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate can be used to detect treatment response in a glioma tumor model; a tumor type where detection of response with (18) fluoro-2-deoxyglucose, using positron emission tomography, is limited by the high background signals from normal brain tissue. (13) C chemical shift images acquired following intravenous(More)
Numerous pre-clinical and clinical reports have demonstrated that the MRI-measured apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC) increases early in the response to a wide variety of anti-cancer therapies. It has been proposed that this increase in ADC generally results from an increase in the tumor extracellular volume fraction leading to a greater degree(More)
An immunogold labelling technique was used to label the pili of the bacterium Bacteroides nodosus. The labelling was distinct and highly specific, and individual pili could be recognised beneath the gold probe. The labelling of somatic antigens could be distinguished from that of pilus antigens. Furthermore, labelling of fragments of cytoplasm released by(More)