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Energy harvesting from ubiquitous ambient vibrations is attractive for autonomous small-power applications and thus considerable research is focused on piezoelectric materials as they permit direct inter-conversion of mechanical and electrical energy. Nanogenerators (NGs) based on piezoelectric nanowires are particularly attractive due to their sensitivity… (More)
Efficiency is defined as η = |Q|/|W| in order to investigate the electrical work |W| associated with electrocaloric heat |Q|. This materials parameter indicates that polymer films are slightly more energy efficient than ceramic films, and therefore both species of material remain candidates for future cooling applications.
Design requirements for an 8000 frame/s dual-wavelength ratiometric chemical species tomography system, intended for hydrocarbon vapor imaging in one cylinder of a standard automobile engine, are examined. The design process is guided by spectroscopic measurements on iso-octane and by comprehensive results from laboratory phantoms and research engines,… (More)
Electrocaloric (EC) effects are typically studied near phase transitions in ceramic and polymer materials. Here, we investigate EC effects in an inorganic salt, namely ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4, with an order-disorder transition whose onset occurs at 223 K on cooling. For a single crystal thinned to 50 μm, we use a Maxwell relation to find a large… (More)
Ferroelectric hysteresis measurements on ceramic lawsonite show a temperature dependence of the remanent polarization P(r) = P(o)Θ(s)(cothΘ(s)/T - cothΘ(s)/T(c)) ∼ Q(2), Θ(s) = 26 K, where Q is the thermodynamic order parameter of the phase transition Pmcn-P 2(1)cn. This almost linear temperature evolution of P(r) proves the improper nature of… (More)
Caloric effects are currently under intense study due to the prospect of environment-friendly cooling applications. Most of the research is centred on large magnetocaloric effects and large electrocaloric effects, but the former require large magnetic fields that are challenging to generate economically and the latter require large electric fields that can… (More)