Sam Birnbaum

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A vagal tone monitor (VTM) was used to evaluate cardiac rhythm changes in Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) after intramuscular (i.m.) administration of an anti-cholinergic (atropine sulfate), two carbamates (pyridostigmine bromide and physostigmine salicylate), and combinations of pyridostigmine and atropine. Twelve monkeys were studied in 4 experiments(More)
Sixty-eight patients with chordoma or low-grade chondrosarcoma at the base of the skull received fractionated high-dose postoperative radiation delivered with a 160-MeV proton beam. Protons have favorable physical characteristics which allow the delivery of high doses of radiation to these critically located tumors. The methods employed for these treatments(More)
Although pulse oximetry is a widely accepted and frequently used tool, the reporting and reimbursement of the three related codes, 94760, 94761, and 94762, are often confusing. This commonly used noninvasive tool is a useful adjunct to medical care, but it is not always reimbursed separately. Sometimes referred to as the " fifth vital sign, " along with BP,(More)
An estimate of the amplitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (V) has been proposed as a noninvasive measure of parasympathetic activity. This experiment monitored V in response to a subclinical dose of pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) and a pharmacological challenge of atropine sulfate (ATR). Twelve male rhesus macaques received 200 micrograms/kg of PYR 30 min(More)
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