Sam A. Clark

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OBJECTIVE To provide internationally comparable data on the frequencies of different causes of death. METHODS We analysed verbal autopsies obtained during 1999 -2002 from 12 demographic surveillance sites in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh to find cause-specific and age-specific mortality rates. The cause-of-death codes used by the sites were harmonized(More)
Calbindin-D28k, a calcium binding protein that is thought to act as a facilitator of calcium diffusion in intestine and kidney, is known to be regulated by vitamin D in these tissues. Calbindin-D28k is also present in pancreatic beta cells, but its function in these cells is not known. To determine a role for calbindin-D28k in the beta cell, rat(More)
Walker carcinosarcoma cells cause in vitro osteolysis which may be inhibited by aspirin. In the rat, this tumour produces osteolytic bone deposits and hypercalcaemia, both of which can be prevented by aspirin and indomethacin, whereas soft tissue tumour deposits are unaffected by these drugs. Some human breast tumours cause in vitro osteolysis which may be(More)
The present studies demonstrate that the beta-cell line RINr1046-38 (RIN-38) retains the capability to secrete insulin in response to glucose. The maximal effect of glucose was a 5- to 9-fold stimulation of insulin secretion from RIN-38 cells. This glucose-induced insulin secretion was maximal at 0.6 mM and was modulated by other secretagogues. Potassium(More)
Dithizone (DTZ) is a recognized diabetogenic agent in vivo, and a supravital stain commonly used for identification of islets to be used for transplantation. In the present studies, we compared DTZ staining of freshly isolated and cultured canine, bovine, and porcine islets, and the effect of DTZ on the function and viability of islets. Incubation with DTZ(More)
The 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 enzymes (11beta-HSD1 and 11beta-HSD2), modulate glucocorticoid occupation of the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors by interconverting corticosterone and cortisol to the inactive metabolites 11-dehydrocorticosterone and cortisone within the target cells. The NAD(+)-dependent 11-HSD 2 in the(More)
To determine whether impaired insulin release from perifused rat islets of vitamin D-deficient (D-def) rats is a result of vitamin D-deficiency specifically or an associated decrease in food intake, we: 1) compared insulin release from islets of vitamin D-def rats with insulin release from islets of pair fed (pf) normal rats, and 2) measured the effects of(More)
Tritium-labeled 1,25 (OH2) vitamin D3, when injected into vitamin D-deficient adult and pregnant rats is concentrated and retained strongest in nuclei of cells in the outer root sheath of the hair, followed by the stratum granulosum, spinosum, and basale of the epidermis. In the hair follicle, in addition to the most heavily labeled outer root sheath,(More)
Circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 was determined in female rats between ages 1 and 20 weeks and in male rats between ages 5 and 12 weeks while the rats consumed diets containing vitamin D (5 U/g diet) and calcium concentrations of either 0.04, 0.4 or 1.6% Ca. When consuming the 0.4% Ca diet female rats had mean (+/- SE, pg/ml) serum 1,25(OH)2D3 values of 45 +/- 7 at(More)
Previous studies have indicated that the pancreas has receptors specific for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] and that 1,25-(OH)2D3 increases insulin secretion in vitamin D-deficient rats. In this study we report that in vitamin D-replete, but calcium-deficient, rats in which 1,25-(OH)2D3 levels are elevated, insulin secretion is not altered. In(More)