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OBJECTIVE Obesity alters gut microbiota ecology and associates with low-grade inflammation in humans. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is one of the most efficient procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity resulting in drastic weight loss and improvement of metabolic and inflammatory status. We analyzed the impact of RYGB on the modifications of(More)
Complex gene-environment interactions are considered important in the development of obesity. The composition of the gut microbiota can determine the efficacy of energy harvest from food and changes in dietary composition have been associated with changes in the composition of gut microbial populations. The capacity to explore microbiota composition was(More)
The effects of a daily intake of 30 g fructose on blood glucose regulation, erythrocyte insulin receptors, and lipid metabolism have been studied in type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects. Eight well-controlled patients received, in a randomly assigned crossover design over two 2-mo study periods, 30 g of fructose in exchange for an isocaloric(More)
Low-grade inflammation is a characteristic of the obese state, and adipose tissue releases many inflammatory mediators. The source of these mediators within adipose tissue is not clear, but infiltrating macrophages seem to be especially important, although adipocytes themselves play a role. Obese people have higher circulating concentrations of many(More)
BACKGROUND Information is lacking on the potential effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether n-3 PUFAs have additional effects on adiposity, insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue function (production of adipokines and inflammatory and atherogenic factors), and(More)
Insulin resistance and adiposity induced by a long-term sucrose-rich diet (SRD) in rats could be reversed by fish oil (FO). Regulation of plasma leptin and adiponectin levels, as well as their gene expression, by FO might be implicated in these findings. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term regulation of leptin and adiponectin by dietary FO in(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether a 5-week low-glycemic index (LGI) diet versus a high-glycemic index (HGI) diet can modify glucose and lipid metabolism as well as total fat mass in nondiabetic men. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this study, 11 healthy men were randomly allocated to 5 weeks of an LGI or HGI diet separated by a 5-week washout interval in a(More)
To study the effects of dietary fish oil on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in adipocytes of insulin-resistant rats (rats fed 50% sucrose and 30% fat), eighteen 5-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed, for 6 wk, a diet containing 30% fat as either fish oil (FO) or a mixture of vegetable and animal oils [control oils (CO)]. A third reference group was(More)
The glycemic index concept neglects the insulin secretion factor and has not been systematically studied during mixed meals. Six starch-rich foods were tested alone and in an isoglucido-lipido-protidic meal in 18 NIDDs and compared with a glucose challenge. These test meals were randomly assigned using a three factor experiment design. All three tests(More)
The study was designed to evaluate the chronic regulation of plasma leptin by dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in insulin-resistant, sucrose-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to consume for 3 or 6 wk a diet containing 57.5% (g/100 g) sucrose and 14% lipids as either fish oil (SF) or control oils (SC). After 3 and 6 wk(More)