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INRA, U910, Unité d’Ecologie et de Physiologie du Système Digestif, F-78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Département de Nutrition et d’ Endocrinologie, Paris, F-75013 France; Centre de Recherche Nutrition Humaine, Ile de France, Paris, F-75013 France. INSERM, U872, équipe 7 Nutriomique, Paris,(More)
Complex gene-environment interactions are considered important in the development of obesity. The composition of the gut microbiota can determine the efficacy of energy harvest from food and changes in dietary composition have been associated with changes in the composition of gut microbial populations. The capacity to explore microbiota composition was(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether a 5-week low-glycemic index (LGI) diet versus a high-glycemic index (HGI) diet can modify glucose and lipid metabolism as well as total fat mass in nondiabetic men. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this study, 11 healthy men were randomly allocated to 5 weeks of an LGI or HGI diet separated by a 5-week washout interval in a(More)
The effects of a daily intake of 30 g fructose on blood glucose regulation, erythrocyte insulin receptors, and lipid metabolism have been studied in type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects. Eight well-controlled patients received, in a randomly assigned crossover design over two 2-mo study periods, 30 g of fructose in exchange for an isocaloric(More)
Low-grade inflammation is a characteristic of the obese state, and adipose tissue releases many inflammatory mediators. The source of these mediators within adipose tissue is not clear, but infiltrating macrophages seem to be especially important, although adipocytes themselves play a role. Obese people have higher circulating concentrations of many(More)
The Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG) of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) has issued a series of updated statements regarding the nutritional management of patients with diabetes (1-3). These have been based on the best available evidence derived from the scientific literature and the collective clinical experience of(More)
BACKGROUND Information is lacking on the potential effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether n-3 PUFAs have additional effects on adiposity, insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue function (production of adipokines and inflammatory and atherogenic factors), and(More)
Insulin resistance and adiposity induced by a long-term sucrose-rich diet (SRD) in rats could be reversed by fish oil (FO). Regulation of plasma leptin and adiponectin levels, as well as their gene expression, by FO might be implicated in these findings. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term regulation of leptin and adiponectin by dietary FO in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether a chronic low-glycemic index (LGI) diet, compared with a high-glycemic index (HGI) diet, has beneficial effects on plasma glucose control, lipid metabolism, total fat mass, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve type 2 diabetic men were randomly allocated to two periods of 4(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine whether any benefit might occur from lowering the glycaemic index of diet in the medium term in diabetic patients. Eighteen well-controlled diabetic patients (12 Type 1 and 6 Type 2 non-insulin-treated), were assigned to either a high mean glycaemic index or low mean glycaemic index diet for 5 weeks each in a(More)