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Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert via glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Emerging evidence indicates that an inflammatory process is involved in dopaminergic nigro-striatal neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease. We here report that the GR deficiency of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing GR antisense RNA from early(More)
Emerging evidence points to reactive glia as a pivotal factor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse model of basal ganglia injury, but whether astrocytes and microglia activation may exacerbate dopaminergic (DAergic) neuron demise and/or contribute to DAergic repair is presently the subject of(More)
Post-menopausal estrogen deficiency is recognized to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of a number of age-related diseases in women, such as osteoporosis, coronary heart disease and Alzheimer's disease. There are also sexual differences in the progression of diseases associated with the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, such as Parkinson's disease, a(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of tremor, muscle rigidity, slowness of voluntary movements and postural instability. One of the pathological hallmarks of PD is loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the subtantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The cause and mechanisms underlying the demise of(More)
Parkinsons'disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the subtantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and gliosis. The cause and mechanisms underlying the demise of nigrostriatal DAergic neurons are not completely clarified, but interactions between genes and environmental factors(More)
Alterations in developmental programming of neuroendocrine and immune system function may critically modulate vulnerability to various diseases. In particular, genetic factors, including gender, may interact with early life events such as exposure to hormones, endotoxins, or neurotoxins, thereby influencing disease predisposition and/or severity, but little(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal cell bodies in the substantia nigra pars compacta and gliosis. The cause and mechanisms underlying the demise of nigrostriatal DAergic neurons are ill-defined, but interactions between genes and environmental factors are(More)
Current research evidence suggests that interactions between genetic and environmental factors contribute to modulate the susceptibility to degenerative disorders, including inflammatory and autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). In this context, bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems during ontogeny(More)
The final step in the physiological synthesis of 17beta estradiol (E(2)) is aromatization of precursor testosterone by a CYP19 gene product, cytochrome P450 estrogen aromatase in the C19 steroid metabolic pathway. Within the central nervous system (CNS) the presence, distribution, and activity of aromatase have been well characterized. Developmental stage(More)
During the past three decades, the Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt) signaling cascade has emerged as an essential system regulating multiple processes in developing and adult brain. Accumulating evidence points to a dysregulation of Wnt signaling in major neurodegenerative pathologies including Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative(More)