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Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) causes encephalopathy in severely jaundiced neonates by damaging astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, which help defend the brain against cytotoxic insults, express the ATP-dependent transporter, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1), which mediates export of organic anions, probably including UCB. We therefore studied(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert via glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Emerging evidence indicates that an inflammatory process is involved in dopaminergic nigro-striatal neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease. We here report that the GR deficiency of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing GR antisense RNA from early(More)
Emerging evidence points to reactive glia as a pivotal factor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse model of basal ganglia injury, but whether astrocytes and microglia activation may exacerbate dopaminergic (DAergic) neuron demise and/or contribute to DAergic repair is presently the subject of(More)
Post-menopausal estrogen deficiency is recognized to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of a number of age-related diseases in women, such as osteoporosis, coronary heart disease and Alzheimer's disease. There are also sexual differences in the progression of diseases associated with the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, such as Parkinson's disease, a(More)
Bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems plays a pivotal role in health and disease. Signals generated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis (i.e. luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, LHRH, and sex steroids) are major players coordinating the development immune system function. Conversely, products generated by(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of tremor, muscle rigidity, slowness of voluntary movements and postural instability. One of the pathological hallmarks of PD is loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the subtantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The cause and mechanisms underlying the demise of(More)
Parkinsons'disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the subtantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and gliosis. The cause and mechanisms underlying the demise of nigrostriatal DAergic neurons are not completely clarified, but interactions between genes and environmental factors(More)
The final step in the physiological synthesis of 17beta estradiol (E(2)) is aromatization of precursor testosterone by a CYP19 gene product, cytochrome P450 estrogen aromatase in the C19 steroid metabolic pathway. Within the central nervous system (CNS) the presence, distribution, and activity of aromatase have been well characterized. Developmental stage(More)
Alterations in developmental programming of neuroendocrine and immune system function may critically modulate vulnerability to various diseases. In particular, genetic factors, including gender, may interact with early life events such as exposure to hormones, endotoxins, or neurotoxins, thereby influencing disease predisposition and/or severity, but little(More)
Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones play a central role in the bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems and exert, via GC receptors (GR), potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we report that GR deficiency of transgenic mice expressing GR antisense RNA from early embryonic life has a dramatic(More)