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Ex vivo expansion of satellite cells and directed differentiation of pluripotent cells to mature skeletal muscle have proved difficult challenges for regenerative biology. Using a zebrafish embryo culture system with reporters of early and late skeletal muscle differentiation, we examined the influence of 2,400 chemicals on myogenesis and identified six(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated the function of the Prep1 gene in insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis in liver. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prep1 action on insulin glucoregulatory function has been analyzed in liver of Prep1-hypomorphic mice (Prep1(i/i)), which express 2-3% of Prep1 mRNA. RESULTS Based on euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies and(More)
TGF-beta1 has been shown to induce autophagy in certain cells but whether and how this action is exerted in muscle and whether this activity relates to TGF-beta1 control of muscle cell differentiation remains unknown. Here, we show that expression of the autophagy-promoting protein phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes/phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes(More)
Insulin resistance is central to diabetes and metabolic syndrome. To define the consequences of genetic insulin resistance distinct from those secondary to cellular differentiation or in vivo regulation, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from individuals with insulin receptor mutations and age-appropriate control subjects and studied(More)
Insulin resistance, a critical component of type 2 diabetes (T2D), precedes and predicts T2D onset. T2D is also associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. To define the cause-effect relationship between insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction, we compared mitochondrial metabolism in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from 5 healthy individuals(More)
In obesity, macrophages and other immune cells accumulate in insulin target tissues, promoting a chronic inflammatory state and insulin resistance. Galectin-3 (Gal3), a lectin mainly secreted by macrophages, is elevated in both obese subjects and mice. Administration of Gal3 to mice causes insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, whereas inhibition of(More)
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