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Intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes are either sorted for cargo degradation into lysosomes or secreted as exosomes into the extracellular milieu. The mechanisms underlying the sorting of membrane into the different populations of intraluminal vesicles are unknown. Here, we find that cargo is segregated into distinct subdomains on the endosomal(More)
The sphingolipid ceramides are known to influence lipid lateral organization in biological membranes. In particular, ceramide-induced alterations of microdomains can be involved in several cell functions, ranging from apoptosis to immune response. We used a combined approach of atomic force microscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and confocal(More)
Bax is a critical regulator of physiological cell death that increases the permeability of the outer mitochondrial membrane and facilitates the release of the so-called apoptotic factors during apoptosis. The molecular mechanism of action is unknown, but it probably involves the formation of partially lipidic pores induced by Bax. To investigate the(More)
The principles of organization and functioning of cellular membranes are currently not well understood. The raft hypothesis suggests the existence of domains or rafts in cell membranes, which behave as protein and lipid platforms. They have a functional role in important cellular processes, like protein sorting or cell signaling, among others. Theoretical(More)
Dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin/cholesterol (DOPC/SM/cholesterol) model membranes exhibit liquid-liquid phase separation and therefore provide a physical model for the putative liquid-ordered domains present in cells. Here we present a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging, force measurements, confocal fluorescence imaging and(More)
Naturally occurring long-chain ceramides (Cer) are known to alter the lateral organization of biological membranes. In particular, they produce alterations of microdomains that are involved in several cellular processes, ranging from apoptosis to immune response. In order to induce similar biological effects, short-chain Cer are extensively used in in vivo(More)
This review describes the application of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) for the study of biological membranes. Monitoring the fluorescence signal fluctuations, it is possible to obtain diffusion constants and concentrations for several membrane components. Focusing the attention on lipid bilayers, we explain the technical difficulties and the(More)
Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is a central effector for many biological responses regulated by G-protein-coupled receptors including Drosophila phototransduction where light sensitive channels are activated downstream of NORPA, a PLCbeta homolog. Here we show that the sphingolipid biosynthetic enzyme, ceramide kinase, is a novel regulator(More)
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its paralogs, amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) and APLP2, are metalloproteins with a putative role both in synaptogenesis and in maintaining synapse structure. Here, we studied the effect of zinc on membrane localization, adhesion, and secretase cleavage of APP, APLP1, and APLP2 in cell culture and rat(More)
Lipid rafts in eukaryotic cells are sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich, ordered membrane regions that have been postulated to play roles in many membrane functions, including infection. We previously demonstrated the existence of cholesterol-lipid-rich domains in membranes of the prokaryote, B. burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease [LaRocca et al.(More)