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1. In C6 glioma cells exposed to chemical hypoxia a massive release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) occurred at 3 and 6 h, coupled with an increased number of propidium-iodide positive dead cells. 2. Extracellular Na+ removal, which activates the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger as a Na+ efflux pathway and prevents Na+ entrance, significantly reduced LDH release and the(More)
In the present paper, the role played by Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in focal cerebral ischemia was investigated. To this aim, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed in male rats. The effects on the infarct volume of some inhibitors, such as tyrosine-6 glycosylated form of the exchanger inhibitory peptide (GLU-XIP), benzamil(More)
The effects of glucose and O2 deprivation (OGD) on the survival of cortical and cerebellar neurons were examined to characterize the biochemical mechanisms involved in OGD and OGD followed by reoxygenation. To this aim, neurons were kept for different time periods in a hypoxic chamber with a controlled atmosphere of 95% N(2) and 5% CO2 in a glucose-free(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, by mediating Ca2+ and Na+ fluxes in a bidirectional way across the synaptic plasma membrane, may play a pivotal role in the events leading to anoxic damage. In the brain, there are 3 different genes coding for 3 different proteins: NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3. The aim of this study was to determine whether NCX1, NCX2,(More)
In C6 glioma cells exposed to chemical hypoxia, an increase of extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, cell death, and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) occurred. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide donor and an iron-containing molecule, reduced chemical hypoxia-induced LDH release and cell death. These effects were counteracted(More)
The present study investigated the temporal relationship between neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and expression and the development of neuronal damage occurring during anoxia and anoxia followed by reoxygenation. For this purpose, cerebellar granule cells were exposed to 2 hr of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and 24 hr of reoxygenation.(More)
The aim of the present review is to summarize integrated neurochemical, morphological and neurobehavioral evidence, in particular from our laboratory, which emphasize the short- and long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 on rat glutamate transmission and cognitive functions. The results obtained provide(More)
Prenatal exposure to the CB1 receptor agonist (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)-pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-(1-naphthalenyl)methanone) mesylate (WIN) at a daily dose of 0.5 mg/kg, and Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) at a daily dose of 5 mg/kg, reduced dialysate glutamate levels in frontal cerebral cortex of adolescent(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Neuronal Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger plays a relevant role in maintaining intracellular Ca(2+) and Na(+) levels under physiological and pathological conditions. However, the role of this exchanger in excitotoxicity and ischemia-induced neuronal injury is still controversial and has never been studied in the same neuronal subtypes. (More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurologic disorders and brain dysfunction. In the same pathological settings evidence has been provided in favour of a participation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration altered homeostasis in the chain of events leading to neuronal apoptosis. In the present review(More)