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The direct implicit method with a second-order implicit integration scheme is formulated for and applied to the electron parallel nonlinearity in global electrostatic gyrokinetic particle in cell simulations of toroidal fusion plasmas. The method shows improved numerical accuracy and stability properties compared to the direct implicit method with a(More)
Direct measurements of micro-, meso-, and macroscale transport phenomena in the FT-2 tokamak are shown to be quantitatively reproduced by global full f nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation predictions. A detailed agreement with mean equilibrium E×B flows, oscillating fine-scale zonal flows, and turbulence spectra observed by a set of sophisticated microwave(More)
Gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulation on a transport and microinstability time scale is performed with the ELMFIRE code for a small tokamak FT-2 with kinetic electrons. Turbulent modes are characterized based on their poloidal phase velocity, and tentative comparison with the Doppler reflectometric measurement is done for the poloidal mode rotation.(More)
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